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The Babylonian 

h_ In u m ou e. 1 ; 5^ 

The 'Babylonian 

'Restored from 

the recently recovered Tablets of <iArsur 


Translatioii ^ Commentary 







a. 4. 5-4 

Oxford University Press 

London Edinburgh Glasgow Copenhagen 

New Tort Toronto Melbourne Cape Town 

Bombay Calcutta Madras Shanghai 

Humphrey Milford Publisher to the UNrvERSiTy 

Printed in England 


In the preparation of this edition of the Babylonian 
Epic of Creation I have consulted the original tablets in 
the British Museum upon all doubtful passages. For the 
opportunity of studying these texts I am grateful to 
the Keeper of the Department of Egyptian and Assyrian 
Antiquities, Sir Ernest Budge, D.Litt., who has never 
failed to assist my work upon Sumerian and Babylonian 
Religion. I am also indebted to the late L. W. 
King, Litt.D., for collating passages in the earlier stages 
of my studies upon the tablets. The Rev. S. A. B. 
Mercer, Ph.D., Dean of Bexley Hall, Gambier, U.S.A.. 
assisted me materially by copying out the transcription 
of a large part of the text and by verifying many 
references. For his labours in thus relievinsf me I am 
grateful. In the final stages of my work I came upon 
two unpublished tablets, K. 9188 and Rm. 275, in the 
British Museum, which relate to the myth of the Death 
and Resurrection of Bel. Sir Ernest Budge kindly 
permitted me to copy and publish these also. Mr. C. J. 
Gadd, M.A., Assistant in the Assyrian Department, 
assisted me much by collations of doubtful passages. 


April 20, 1923. 

A 3 


ASKT. Akkadische und Sumerische Keilschrifttexte, by Paul Haupt. 
ATU. Altorientalische Texte und Untersuchungen, edited by Bruno 

BA. Beitriige zur Assyriologie. 
Bab. Babyloniaca. 

Bg.-Keui, Bogh.-Keui. Keihchri/ltexte atis Boghazkoi. 
BL. Babylonian Liturgies, by S. Langdon. 
Boissier, DA. Documents Assyriens, by Alfred Boissier. 
Chicago Syllabary. Published in the American Journal of Semitic 

Languages, vol. 33. 
Craig, RT. Religious Texts, by James A. Craig. 
CT. Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets, &'c., in the British 

Museinn. Copied by Pinches, King, Thompson, Handcock, S. Smith, 

and Gadd. 
D^l. Per. D/le'gation en Perse. Texts edited chiefly by V. Scheil. 
Dhorme, Choix. Choix de Textes religieux Assyro-Babyloniens, by 

Paul Dhorme. Published in MVAG. 1918, Parts i and 2. 
Ebeling, Quellen. Quellen zur Kcnjitnis dcr babylonischen Religion, by 

E. Ebeling. 
For.; Winckler Forschungen. Altorientalische Forschungen, by Hugo 


H.B. Handbuch zur Babylonischen Astronomie, by Ernest Weidnkr. 

H.W. Assyrisches Handworterbuch, by Friedrich Delitzsch. 

JRAS. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

JSOR. fournal of the Society of Oriental Research. 

KAR. Keilschrifttexte aus Assur religiosen Inhalts, by Erich Ebeling. 

KAT*. Keilschrift und Altes Testament, by Hugo Winckler and 

Heinrich Zimmern. 
KAV. Keilschrifttexte aus Assur verschiedenen Inhalts, by Otto 

KB. Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek. 

King, Creat. The Seven Tablets of Creation, by L. W. King. 
KL. Altsumerische KuUlicder, by Heinrich Zimmern. 
Klauber, PRT. Politisch-religiose Texte, by Ernest Klauber. 

Abbreviations 3 

KTA. Keihchriftlexte mis Assur hisiorischeti Inhalts, by Leopold 

Legrain, Ur. Temps des Rois d'Ur, by Leon Legrain. 
LIH. Letters and Inscriptions of Hammurabi, by L. W. King. 
LSS. Leipziger Semitislische Studien. 
Meissner, Suppl. Supplement zu den Assyrischen Worterbiichern, by 

Bruno Meissner. 
MVAG. Alitteilungen der Vorderasialischen GeseUschaft. 
Nies, HRET. Historical, Religious, and Economic Texts and Antiquities, 

by J. B. Nies and C. E. Keiser. 
OLZ. Orientalistische Literaturzeitung. 
Paradis. Pocme du Paradis, by S. Langdon. 
PBS. Publications of the Babylonian Section of the University Museum, 

PSBA. Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology. 
R or Raw., R I, R II, R III, R IV, R V. Cuneiform Inscriptions of 

Western Asia, founded by Major-General Sir Henry Rawlinson, 

copied by George Smith, Edwin Norris, and T. G. Pinches. 
RA. Revue d'Assyriologie. 
REG. Recherches stir I'Ecriture ciine'iforme, by Francois Thureau- 

SAL Seltene assyrische Ideogramme, by Bruno Meissner. 
SAK. Sunierisch-akkadische Kotiigsinschriften, by F. Thureau-Dangin. 
SBH. Sumerisch-Babylonische Hymnen, by George Reisner. 
SBP. Sumerian and Babylonian Psalms, by S. Langdon. 
Scheil, Esagil. Esagil ou le Temple de Be'l-Marduk, by V. Scheil. 
Shurpu. Die Beschworungstafeln Surpu, by H. Zimmern. 
Streck, Assurb. Assurbanipal und die letzten assyrischen Kmige, by 

M. Streck. 
Sum. Gr. A Sumerian Grammar and Chrestomathy, by S. Langdon. 
Thompson, Reports. Reports of the Magicians and Astrologers, by 

R. Campbell Thompson. 
VAB. Vorderasiatische Biblioihek. 
ViroUeaud, Astrol. L'Astrologie chalde'ewu, Sin, Shamash, Ishtar, Adad, 

with Supplement and Second Supplement, by Chas. Virolleaud. 
ZA. Zeitschrift fUr Assyriologie. 

ZDMG. Zeitschrift der Detilschen morgenldndischen GeseUschaft. 
Zimmern, Rt. Ritualtafeln fur den Wahrsager, Beschworer und Sanger, 

by H. Zimmern. 


In 1902 the late Dr. L. W. King published the most 
complete edition of the Babylonian Epic of Creation 
which the available sources permitted him to make. 
The new texts which he discovered in the recent acquisi- 
tions of the British Museum nearly doubled the material 
at the disposal of earlier editors. The sources which 
Mr. George Smith utilized for the first publication of 
this Epic were all from the Library of Asurbanipal, 
discovered at Nineveh, and this means, of course, that 
they were copies of the southern or Babylonian original. 
George Smith's memorable book appeared in five 
editions under the title The Chaldean Genesis ; the 
last edition is dated in the year 1876. New fragments 
of the Epic were gradually added to the Museum's 
collections, and those which had been identified in 1901 
were collected and published by Dr. King in volume xiii 
of Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets. Perhaps 
the most interesting fact which appeared from this new 
textual edition was the existence of numerous late 
Babylonian tablets. There could be no doubt, upon 
the evidence of the colophons of the Ninevite edition, 
that the Epic originated in the south. But there is no 
information at all concerning the temple libraries which 
Asurbanipal's scribes consulted, or where they made 
their copies. One of the Ninevite texts (K. 292) seems 
to have been copied at the old Assyrian capitol Assur, 
where a considerable portion of the Epic has been 
recovered and here utilized. But there can be no question 
concerning the origin of most of the texts in the 

6 Babylonian Origin of Texts 

Asurbanipal edition. It was clearly taken directly from 
the authentic Babylonian copy. This is extremely 
important, since the scribes of the older Assyrian period 
at Assur deliberately suppressed the name of the Baby- 
lonian god Marduk and replaced him by Ansar (Asur), 
the national deity of Assyria. This violent racial treat- 
ment of a famous and ancient poem is fortunately not 
consistently carried out, and the numerous tablets re- 
covered from the library at Assur frequently allow the 
name Jllardtik to stand. The present text of Book VI, 
which is almost entirely derived from an Assur text, 
has not been re-edited at all. 

The numerous Neo-Babylonian tablets published in 
CT. xiii and in L. W. King's The Seven Tablets of 
Creation, vol. ii, probably come in part from Sippar or 
Agade (Der .''). At any rate a colophon of a Babylonian 
copy made in the twenty-seventh year of Darius states 
that the tablet was copied from a tablet in Babylon. See 
the second colophon of Book I. The valuable Neo- 
Babylonian tablet Bu. 82-9-18, 3737, now No. 93016, 
which carries so much of the interesting Fourth Book, 
has a colophon which indicates that a pious scribe copied 
it and placed it in the temple Ezida (at Barsippa). He 
gives no information concerning the place where he 
copied it. The colophons of all the Assur copies are 
broken away with the exception of the copy of Book VI, 
but of this colophon few signs remain. Although direct 
evidence fails entirely in the published texts, there can be no 
hesitation concerning the temple library, which possessed 
the editio princcps. All copies in the south and north 
were ultimately derived from the copies of the library 
of Esagila, the temple of Marduk in Babylon. Although 
my edition is based upon copies found in many centres 
of Babylonia and Assyria, the scholar accustomed to 
dealing with the ofttimes hopelessly corrupt texts of 

Earlier Editions 7 

Greek, Latin, and Hebrew literature, will be astonished 
at the faithful transmission of the Babylonian text. In 
fact the notes, which are heavily charged with variants, 
almost invariably convey the same text with different 
methods of phonetic spelling and choice of signs which 
represent the same sound. This observation applies to 
Cuneiform texts in general. It is set forth here because 
the non-assyriological public do not yet fully appreciate 
the trustworthy nature of the Cuneiform texts and their 
great superiority in this respect over the Hebrew, 
Egyptian, and Classical texts. 

In the interim between thepublications of George Smith 
and L. W. King, various scholars published editions of 
the Epic of Creation. Savce, in the Records of the Past, 
vol. i, 122-51 (1888), gave a translation of such tablets 
as were known to him, including the then newly recovered 
tablet (93016) of Book IV. Zimmekn, in Gunkel's 
SchopfuHg und Chaos, contributed an extremely pene- 
trating translation (1895), which was soon followed by 
Delitzsch's edition in transcription and translation, Das 
Babylonische Weltschopfiuigsepos in Abhandlungen der 
Sdchsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, 1 896. P. J ensen 
had already published a similar technical edition of the 
most important tablets at that stage of the text in his 
Die Kosmologie der Babylonier (1890); a much better 
edition appeared (1900) by Jensen in his My then und 
Epen, pp. 1-39, of which King made use for his monu- 
mental work in 1902. After King's edition, which 
contributed so much new material and restored so many 
lacunae, the next serious labour bestowed upon the 
philological and religious interpretation of the Epic is 
Pi:RE Dhorme's edition in his Choix de Textes religieux, 
2-81 (1907). A good many popular editions have been 
published on the basis of King and Dhorme's editions, 
among which may be mentioned Ungnad's translation 

8 New Texts from Assur 

in Gressmann's Texte und Bilder (1909), pp. 1-25, which 
is obviously based upon an independent study of the text, 
and R. W. Roger's transcription and translation In Cmiei- 
form Pa7'a/lels to the Old Testament (19 12), 1-44, and 
H. Winckler's translation in his Keilinschriftliches 
Textbuch zum A I ten Testatnent. 

Such was the condition of the text between 1901 and 
1 91 9 when Dr. Erich Ebeling began the publication 
of the religious texts discovered by the German exca- 
vators at Assur, the old capitol of Assyria, marked by 
the modern mound Kalat Sherghdt, on the Tigris, about 
fifty miles south of Nineveh. The capitol of Assyria 
was not transferred to Nineveh until the period of 
Asurnasirpal I in the twelfth century ; the literary texts 
of the old capitol probably date from about the twelfth- 
tenth centuries ; at any rate the copies of the Epic of 
Creation recovered there may be dated in that period.' 
These were undoubtedly copied from the Babylonian 
originals in the temple archives of the city of Babylon 
itself. The colophons of the Assur texts, so far as 
recovered, scarcely name any other southern city as the 
source of their originals. See KAR. 70, 144, 150. Two 
tablets, KAR. 15, 16, were copied at Nippur and Babylon, 
while others were described simply as copies from the 
' Land of Accad '. 

The new Assur texts contribute materially to the 
restoration of Book I and contain all of the lost Book VI. 
Unfortunately the astronomical poem, contained in 
Book V, receives no aid from Assur. It is now the 

^ See the colophon of KAR. no. 14, limzc of Asur-ahi-iddina, certainly 
before 911 B.C., and KAR. 220, limu of Sunu-kardu, found also at the 
end of the old Assyrian letter, Schroeder, KAV. 109. Schroeder, 
OLZ. 1 92 1, 21, places the beginning of the recently recovered Hmu lists 
in the reign of Tukulti-Ninurta I (13th century), and Ebeling's publica- 
tion contains prayers of this king, KAR. 128-9. 

New Texts from Asbuf 9 

only incomplete portion of the seven books. Book V 
is really a prototype of the Astronomica of Manilius, 
and for that reason of greater interest to Classical 
scholars than any other book of the Epic. At present 
only fragments of copies of the Asurbanipal edition have 
been recovered for this astronomical portion of the 
poem. With the material previously collected by King 
and the new tablets from Assur at his disposal, Ebeling 
published an edition of the entire Epic in Meissner's 
Altorientalische Texte unci UntersucJmngen, vol. ii, part 4, 
under the title Das Babylonische Weltschbpfungslied 
(192 1). This edition contains variants and restorations 
from several new fragments discovered in the collections 
of the Berlin Museum after the editio princcps in 
Ebeling's Religiose Kcilschrifttexte aus Asstir (abbrevi- 
ated KAR), parts 1-4, had appeared. This edition is 
lithographed from the editor's own handwriting, and 
is so minutely written in places that its usefulness is 
seriously affected. But circumstances impose great 
hardship upon scholarship everywhere in post-war days, 
especially in Germany. Assyriologists in all lands must 
be grateful to Ebeling for his brave endeavour to 
publish the results of his studies even in this undesirable 
form. His copies in the ediiio princeps are admirable. 

As usual ZiMMERN published a very penetrating article 
on the First Book immediately after the texts appeared. 
His study, which is cited frequently in my edition, 
appeared in vol. i of Orientalische Studien Fritz Hommel 
. . . gewidmet, under the title Marduks [Eliils, AHurs) 
Gebiirt im baby lonischen Weltschopfiingsepos, pp. 213-25. 
The title of Zimmern's article in itself reveals the fact 
that he had discovered the substitution of Asur for 
Marduk in the Assyrian redaction. A translation of 
the parts of the Epic directly affected by the new A§sur 
texts, accompanied by a transcription, that is Books I 


Date of Composition 

and VI, was made by Luckenbtll in the American 
Journal of Semitic Lang2iages,vo\. 38, 12-31. 

The Epic was undoubtedly written in the period of 
the First Babylonian Dynasty, 2225-1926. Although 
no tablets of the poem have been found from that time, 
the inscription of Agum-kakrime, seventh king of the 
Cassite Dynasty, which followed immediately upoQ, the 
First Dynasty, proves its existence in his time (17th 
century). In a long inscription, of which a nearly 
complete copy has been found at Nineveh,^ this king 
writes of his restoration of the statues of Marduk and 
Zarpanit, his consort, which had been plundered and 
carried away to the ' far land, the land Hani '. The 
inscription describes in great detail the works of art 
with which Agum-kakrime adorned the statues and 
sanctuaries of these deities. The influence of the Epic 
of Creation is clearly revealed in the copper panels of 
the doors of the holy chambers. Upon these were 
represented the monsters of Chaos which Marduk subdued 
in his combat with Tiamat. The list is almost identical 
with that of the Epic. On the doors of these chapels, 
restored by Agum-kakrime, the craftsmen placed the 
Viper {basmti), Lahmus, the Fish-ram {kusarikkii), the 
Great Lion (ugallum), the Gruesome Hound {uridimmu), 
the Fish-man [kulili), the Goat-fish {snhumahT}, in all 
seven monsters which, with one exception, are identical 
with passages of the Epic of Creation.* 

Scepticism concerning the view here taken may be 
based upon the suggestion that these monsters were 
common possession of Babylonian mythology, and may 
have been derived from sources other than the Epic. 
But the order in the two lists is so similar, and their 
connexion with Marduk in the chapel of Esagila so 

' V Raw. 33; translated by Jensen, KB. iii 134-53. 
' Book I 140-3; II 27-9; III 31-3, 89-91. 

The Epic in Art ii 

characteristic, that the probability of borrowing directly 
from the Epic is almost a certainty. A close parallel 
exists in the bronze gates which Senecherib caused to be 
made for the Bit akit scri, ' House of the New Year's 
Festival of the Plain '.^ Here the bronze plates of the 
ffate were cast with the scene of Asiirs battle with 
Tiamat, and no interpreter has denied the influence of 
the Epic of Creation as it was told in Assyria. This 
scene represented the god Asur riding into battle against 
Tiamat, armed with the ' cyclone ', preceded and followed 
by various gods of the pantheon. The names of 
Tiamat's monsters are not given here. 

The reaction of the Epic upon art in all periods after 
its composition, about the twenty-second century, is 
undeniable. The problem here is chronological, and 
from this point of view the reliefs of Agum-kakrime 
are important. They constitute at present the only 
direct evidence of the existence of this great poem 
before the actual texts which contain the legend. There 
is in the literature of the First Dynasty no reference to 
the Epic at all. But an earlier Sumerian poem of 
a similar kind existed, which inspired the Semitic poem, 
a problem which remains to be examined. The Epic 
originally contained only six books. The hymn to the 
names of Marduk, which now forms Book VH, must 
have existed as an independent poem ; it was finally 
attached to the Epic in the late period, but it disagrees 
with the poem itself at many points. For direct evidence 
of its existence as a separate hymn, and probably a 
bilingual hymn on the names of Marduk, see the note 
on Vn 125. The arrangement of the poem in six 
books was probably taken from the rules of liturgical 

* K. 1356, published by Meissner and Rost in Die Bauitischriflen 
Senecheribs, PI. 16, and translated pp. 98-103. A revised version is 
given by Zimmern in Zum Babylonischen NeuJahrs/esP, 143-8. 

12 Analysis oj Contents 

compositions. When the Babylonians edited the canonical 
Sumerian liturgies for their own use and provided the 
Sumerian text with an interlinear Semitic version, the 
material was almost invariably distributed over six 

Further discussion of many problems connected with 
the Epic of Creation must be preceded by an analysis ^J 
of its contents. \ 

(i) Bk. I I-20. In the beginning only Apsfi the fresh 
water ocean and Tiamat the salt ocean existed. They 
were mingled in one. From the union of the male 
Apsft and the dragon of Chaos, Tiamat, the pair Lahmu | 
and Lahamu were engendered, and after many ages 
Ansar. and Kisar came into being. These two deities 
are the first of the gods of order, and they engendered 
Anu the heaven god and Ea the water god.'^ 

(2) Bk. I 21-8. The gods, descended from Lahmu 
and Lahamu, rebelled against the primaeval water 

(3) Bk. I 29-54. Apsd and Mummu went to Tiamat 
and the husband declared his wish to destroy the gods. 
Tiamat, enraged, seeks advice from Mummu, who urged 
ApsCl to execute his plan. 

(4) Bk. I 55-78. They announced to the gods this 
decision, and they wept at their fate. But Ea bewitched 
Apsu and Mummu with a curse, and slew them. He 
made Apsfl his abode. 

(5) Bk. I 79-105. The birth of Marduk son of Ea, 
or of Asur son ofJLahmu. Description of the pro- 

' See the writer's Sumerian and Babylonian Psalms, p. xii. 

' Enlil of the older Sumerian myth is completely suppressed in the 
Semitic version. The earth god Enlil and his son Ninurta were replaced 
by Ea and his son Marduk. 

Analysis of Contents 13 

(6) Bk. I 106-27. One of Tiamat's attendants reports 
the death of ApsCi and Mummu to her. He urges her 
to revenge her husband, and create monsters to help 
in the combat. 

(7) Bk. I 128-61. Description of the eleven monsters ; 
nine are named ; Tiamat and her second husband make 
up the eleven. • Kingu is exalted over the powers of 
Chaos and receives the tablets of fates. 

(8) Bk. II 1-14. Tiamat prepares for battle; Ea 
discovers the plot, and reports to Ansar. [Lines 11-14 
form an introduction to the repetition in § 9.] 

(9) Bk. II 15-48. Ea repeats to Ansar the description 
of the monsters in (7). 

(10) Bk. II 49-57. Ansar is terrified, and appeals to 
Ea to use his curse against Tiamat, as he had done 
against Apsfl. 

(11). Bk. II 58-70. Break in the text. Ea went up 
against Tiamat, but fled and reported his defeat to 

(12). Bk. II 71-85. Ansar in terror appeals unto Anu ; 
he obeys his fathers and goes up to meet Tiamat, but 
likewise retreats in terror. 

(13). Bk. II 86-101. Ansar despairs and the gods sit 
about him in tears. But he remembers the prowess of 
Marduk, and Ea summoned his son into the presence 
of Ansar. 

(14) Bk. II 102-19. In the presence of Marduk 
Ansar's confidence revived. Marduk promises to fight 
Tiamat. Ansar foretells his victory. 

(15) Bk. II 120-9. Marduk demands promotion to 
the rank of a great god as a reward for his bravery in 
the event of his victory. 

(16) Bk. Ill 1-12. Ansar sends his messenger to 
Lahmu to summon all the gods (the Igigi and Anunnaki) 
to an assembly. 

14 Analysis of Contents 

(17) Bk. Ill 13-14. He charges Gaga to repeat to 
Lahmu the message which Ea had made to him con- 
cerning the preparations of Tiamat to destroy the gods. 

(18) Bk. Ill 15-52. Ansar repeats to Gaga the 
speech of Ea = II 11-48. 

(19) Bk. Ill 55-7. He further charges Gaga to tell 
Lahmu and the gods how Ea and Anu had been defeated, 
and how Marduk had come forward to rescue them. 

(20) Bk. HI 58-64. Ansar repeats to Gaga the 
demand of Marduk that the gods assemble and raise him 
to the rank of a god = Bk. II 123-9. 

{21) Bk. Ill 65-6. He charges Gaga to tell the gods 
to assemble quickly. 

(22) Bk. Ill 67-70. Gaga hastens from the presence 
of Ansar and goes to Lahmu and the gods. 

(23) Bk. Ill 71-124. Gaga repeats the various sections 
of Ansar's message = \\ 17-22; i.e. lines 71-124 = 
Bk. 1 1 1 1 3-66 (fifty-four lines repeated). 

(24) Bk. Ill 125-38. The gods now hear for the 
first time that Tiamat had prepared to destroy them. 
They wailed bitterly, and departed to assemble before 
Ansar in the Hall of Fates. They sat down to banquet 
and decreed the fate of Marduk. 

(25) Bk. IV 1-18. They founded a chamber for 
Marduk in the Hall of Fates (Ubsukkina), and he is thus 
added to the sacred assembly of the highest gods. He 
receives the power to declare fates and work miracles, 
and they praise his power. 

(26) Bk. IV 19-26. His power to work miracles is 
tested by the miracle of the garment. 

(27) Bk. IV 27-33. The gods saw how Marduk had 
now received the mystic attributes of a great divinity 
by possessing the 'word of fate'. He receives the 
sceptre and weapons of battle. 

They charge him to go up against Tiamat. 

Analysis oj Contents 15 

(28) Bk. IV 34-58. Description of Marduk's weapons. 

(29) Bk. IV 59-70. He proceeds against Tiamat 
and her host, and the gods went with him (as in the 
inscription of Senecherib which described the scene of 
Ansar's victory on the gate of a temple). 

(30) Bk. IV 71-134. Defeat of Tiamat; the binding 
of Kingu and the monsters.^ Tiamat is slain. 

(31) Bk. IV 135-46. Marduk divides the body of 
Tiamat and constructs heaven, earth, and the nether 
sea, and fixes the abode of the three gods of the trinity. 

(32) Bk. V. Astronomical poem on the movements 
of the planets in the ecliptic, the motions of the moon, 
and the positions of the signs of the zodiac as constructed 
by Marduk. Only twenty-five lines of the astronomical 
section are preserved. The book concludes with a song 
of praise by the gods concerning the firmament made by 

(33) Bk VI 1-28. The creation of man. Marduk 
assembles the gods and orders Kingu to be brought 
before Ea and slain. Ea creates man from the blood 
of Kingu. Man was created to honour the gods in 

(34) Bk. VI 29-35. Marduk divides the gods into 
two groups, the Igigi or 600 gods of the upper world 
and the heavens, and the Anunnaki or fifty gods of the 
lower world. 

(35) Bk. VI 36-41. In gratitude the gods decide to 
build a great shrine on earth for Marduk, where they 
may all assemble (on New Year's festival to declare 

(36) Bk. VI 42-55. Marduk rejoices and decides to 
build Babylon and its temple Esagila. The gods build 
the city and its great temple for Marduk. 

' Here also the gods assist in the battle with the giants, iv 92. 

1 6 Ritual. Origin 

They construct chapels in Esagila for themselves and' 
sit down to a great feast in Marduk's temple. 

{2,1) Bk. VI 56-64. They arrange the laws of the 
universe and divide power among themselves. Marduk 
lays down his weapons before them. 

(38) Bk. VI 65-8. Ann gives names to Marduk's 
bow and fixes it in heaven as Canis Major. 

(39) Bk. VI 69-138. (Here several lines missing.) 
Anu the heaven god defines the powers of Marduk ; 
he shall be ruler of mankind, and charged with the 
upkeep of temples and sacrifices. Babylon is a pattern 
of the constellation Cetus and Aries. The gods give 
Marduk the Fifty Names. A hymn by the gods on 
a few of Marduk's titles. 

(40) Bk. VI 139-44. The gods rejoiced at the powers 
bestowed upon Marduk. They sat in the assembly 
mentioning his names. 

End of the original poem which closes with the 
assembly of the gods in Babylon. P] 

(41) Bk. VII. An independent bilingual hymn on the 
names of Marduk, later attached to the Epic in a Semitic 

The Epic, therefore, closed with a scene based upon 
the Babylonian celebration of the New Year's festival, 
which was held during the first eleven days of Nisan or 
at the spring equinox, when the gods of all Babylonia 
came up to Babylon in their sacred boats to assemble 
in the Hall of Fates (Ubsukkina) in Esagila. The 
poem is in reality a ritualistic creation based upon an 
older Sumerian myth. Two leading problems present 
themselves, as the contents of this Epic now lie almost 
entirely revealed before us. In the first place, what was 
the nature of the old Sumerian myth, and secondly, what 
was the meaning of the New Year festival which inspired 
the poem ? 

Stimerian Source 17 

In Book IV 49, in the passage which describes 
Marduk's weapons (see § 28 of the analysis), one of his 
weapons is called the ' Cyclone '. From the note on 
this passage it is apparent that the epithet was originally 
applied to the Sumerian arm iarur, which belonged to 
Ni nurt a^ the old Sumerian war-god and son of the 
earth-god Enlil of Nippur. Now a Sumerian liturgy 
to Ninurta, called gud nim kurra or ' Exalted hero of 
the world ', of which the first two tablets have been 
recovered and edited in my Sumerian and Babylonian 
Psalms, 224-37, clearly refers to a Sumerian myth in 
which this god defeated the dragons of Chaos. At the 
beginning of tablet II the liturgy refers to some 
command given to Ninurta by Anu and Enlil. The 
son of Enlil, who is here identified with Ningirsu of 
Lagash, is thus described : 

' He who launches the " Cyclone ", to this word gave 
He uttered a loud cry, to the word he gave heed. 
To the Viper ^ advancing without a lord of order, 
he gave heed.' 

Here follow references to Ninurta^s net ^ and his riding 
up to battle,^ upon which the parallel passages in the 
Epic are obviously based. The liturgy then continues : 

' Great champion whose word bringeth joy, O lord, 

advance, ride forth. 
May great Anu behold thee, O lord, advance, ride 

Thou that boldest in leash the god Zii, O lord, 

advance, ride forth. 

> usum-gal = balmu. My reading SEP. 232, 11, BUR {usum) should 
be preceded by GAL. The iasmu is the first mentioned of the dragons 
of Tiamat, Book IV 140, and identified with Hydra. In the Sumerian 
myth ulumgal is equivalent to Tiamat. 

' Cf. IV 44. ' Cf. IV 50. 

1 8 Ninurta the Original Protagonist 

O lord establish thou thy foundations, yea thou 

alone over thy foes, O lord. 
Before thee thy feast is made glorious, advance, 

ride forth.' 

The liturgical style of this passage does not obscure 
the mythological source if we remember that the text 
was written for musical recital. The word of Ninurta 
rejoices the gods, precisely as in the parallel passage 
of the Epic Marduk's words restore their confidence, 
Bk. II 104-10. The feast prepared for Ninurta recalls 
the feast of the gods in the hall of Ansar, when they 
elevated Marduk to the rank of a god,^ or more appro- 
priately the feast mentioned in Book VI 54, after the 
victory. In the Sumerian myth the god Zu was one 
of the giants subdued by Ninurta, an aspect of the tale 
which does not appear in the Epic. But a hymn to 
Marduk contains a passage obviously based upon the 
Epic of Creation, and here he is called the mahis miihhi 
^^"Zi-e, 'smiter of the skull of the god Zu ', followed by 
the names of other monsters mentioned also in the 
Epic.^ Moreover, a commentary on the rituals of the 
New Year's festival, in which the various features of 
the ritual are mystically interpreted, mentions ''"Zil and 
*^"Asakku, whom the gods bound in their midst.^ A 
similar commentary which explains the occult significa- 
tion of the rituals of the New Year celebration at Assur 
has been recovered.* Here the sod Asur is said to 
have sent Ninurta to conquer the god Zu. The evidence 

' See § 24 of the analysis. 

' Craig, RT. 29, 15. Zu occurs also in another hst of these monsters, 
Craig, RT. 56, 6, under his ordinary Sumerian title ^^^ Im-diigud\^ii). 

' CT. 15, 44, 14. The meaning of this text was discovered by 
ZiMMERN, Zum Babylonischm Neujahrsfest^, 135. 

* Published by Ebeling, KAR. 143, and restored from a duplicate by 
ZiiiMERN, in his edition of this text, Zum Babylonischen Neujahrs/esl'' 
pp. 14-21. See also RM. 275. 


Ninurta the Original Protagonist 19 

for the existence of an older Sumerian version in which 
Ninurta was the protagonist of the gods is, therefore, 
convincing.' Although no Sumerian text which contains 

' The place of the mysterious bird-god Ztl, the lion-headed emblem 
of Susa and Sumer, in Sumerian mythology is obscure. From the 
evidence adduced in the text above this mythical monster figured in 
the Sumerian and Semitic Epic of Creation as a monster in the host 
of Tiamat, and as a constellation he vtzs identified with Pegasus, the 
winged horse, Zimmern, KAT.' 502, after Jensen, but Kugler, Stern- 
kunde, Erganzungen, 59, says that the kakkabgf^j^ [= '^■Im-dugud-gu =: 
^'■'^'■Za, VR. 46 a 20), or ' Horse star ', is only the fore-part of Pegasus 
or Equuleus. Scholars agree in explaining the location of this star as 
due to the identification of the 'Storm-bird' Zu with the winter sun, 
for this constellation rises heliacally in the stormy season. The Sumerian 
ideogram for ''"Z«? ' means the storm-bird, and he is represented on 
a boundary-stone, VR. 57, by the head of a horse, but without wings. 
In the omen, Boissier, DA. 207, 28, '''■ Im-dugud-'gti follows '^■Galu-gus-a, 
'Raging man', and the variant, PSBA. 1914, 247, 76 f. has for the 
former ^^^'■Zi-i, and for the latter sisu, horse. It is, therefore, certain that 
the mythical storm-bird was associated, in astronomy at least, with the 
winged horse Pegasus. Like the other monsters of Chaos subdued by 
Marduk, ZQ was identified with a constellation. 

A Semitic poem of considerable length, a portion of which is preserved 
in bilingual form, tells how the god Lugalbanda, a cognate type of 
Ninurta, god of the spring sun, subdued the ' Storm-bird ' Zu after 
Ramman (the thunder god), Ishtar (the war goddess), and the god 
BARA, i. e. ^ara, god of Umma, had refused to pursue this monster. 
The legend runs that 7A stole the tablets of fate from Enlii, and Enlil's 
son Lugalbanda (= Ninurta) recovered them. We now know from the 
restoration of Book IV of the Epic of Creation that both Anu and Ea ' 
fled before Tiamat. The two myths present great similarity at this 
point, and the similarity supports the conjecture that Enlil and Ninurta 
had much the same relation to Tiamat in the old Sumerian myth. For 
the legend of ZU see Jensen, KB. vi 46-57. This legend is continued 
on a bilingual fragment, CT. 15, 43, where Zfi slays a wild ox in Haiur, 
' the unknown land '. This Semitic version of Zu is clearly based upon 
the Sumerian poem published by Poebel. PBS. v, no. 16, which, like the 
fragment in CT. 15, 43, mentions ''■/m-dugud-(gu)-de', the wild ox {am) 
and the nest u-ki-sig-ga of Zu, as well as ^-Lugal-banda. 

A mythological scene which frequently occurs on Assyrian bas-reliefs 
represents Marduk-Asur in pursuit of a dragon. The god has four 
wings and holds in his right and left hands the conventional symbol of 

B 2 

20 A Solar Myth 

the myth of Ninurta's combat with Tiamat has been 
found, it is certain that some similar tale existed. In 
this myth Enlil sent his son into the combat, and a 
variant on Book II 5 actually has ''"En\^lil'\ for Ea, 
father of Marduk, who is sent for by his father (Ea) to 
rescue the gods in the Semitic Epic. It may of course be 
possible that the old myth of Ninurta and the storm- 
bird Zu gave the Semitic poets their inspiration for the 
myth of Marduk and Tiamat, and that is very probable. 
The myth of Ninurta or Lugalbanda and Zd is based 
upon the conflict between the spring sun and demons 
of the winter period of storms and darkness. After 
Lugalbanda-Ninurta-Ningirsu, son of Enlil, conquers the 
Storm-bird Zu, the monster became the symbol of this 
god as a lion-headed eagle with deployed wings. 

At any rate the Epic of Creation is also a solar myth 
and intimately connected with the spring sun, whose 
return from the region of darkness was celebrated by 
a long festival at the beginning of the year. In this 
New Year's festival of Nisan, which at least in the late 
period extended over the first eleven days of the New 
Year, the Epic of Creation was an Important factor. 
For the festival, as it was celebrated from the sixth 
century b. c. until the end of Babylonian civilization, that 
is as late as the third century and perhaps even later, we 
possess the authoritative texts for the ceremonies of the 
second, third, fourth, and fifth days of Nisan. ' The 

the thunder-bolt. The dragon is a male monster, a winged lion with 
scaly body and bird talons. For this reason the identification of the 
dragon with Zu rather than with Tiamat commands favour. For repro- 
ductions of this scene see Assyrian Sctclp/ures, Kleinmann, PI. 83-4 and 
PI. 85-6; Ward, Seal Cylinders, pp. 197 fif. There is an earlier repre- 
sentation of this scene on a seal. Ward, no. 580, that represents Marduk 
in combat with a winged horse, which is certainly ZG. 

' These texts are put together and edited by F. Thureau-Dangin, 
Rituels Accadiens, 127-46. 

The Nezv Year Festival at Babylon 21 

ceremony here described applies, of course, only to the 
festival as it was observed at Babylon, the capital, and 
home of the Marduk cult. The directions for the first 
day are not recovered. On the second day, two hours 
before sunrise, the high priest must rise and bathe, attire 
himself in linen, and enter the sanctuary of Bel (Marduk). 
He then recites a hymn in which Marduk's victory over 
the host of Tiamat and the blessings conferred upon the 
gods are mentioned.^ This hymn is to be a mystery, 
not to be said by any one save the high priest, who 
must be alone in the sanctuary. 

Then he opened the doors and the priests and psalmists 
enter before Bel and perform certain ordinary rituals. 
After another rubric which refers to tlie ' crown of 
Anu', the high priest (?) sings a Semitic hymn to Bel- 
Marduk. Here the 'curse' of Marduk is referred to 
and an irrevocable decree, but it is not clear whether the 
'curse' refers to a legend that Marduk employed a 
malediction in his combat with Tiamat, or to a judgement 
passed on the wicked gods. Book VI 131 does mention 

' This hymn, which is partly bilingual, contains lines which obviously 
refer to the Epic of Creation. The Semitic version is probably original. 
With line 14 of. Book VI 140 and VII 68. Line 22 refers to Marduk 
having burned the mighty ones, not to a ' binding ' of the monsters 
as in the Epic. In fact one of the commentaries on the ritual refers 
to the 'burning of Kingu ', whereas the Epic, IV 119, states that Kingu 
was bound, and Book VI 25-6 also has it that Kingu was brought bound 
before Ea and slain. The repeated description of Marduk as the Fire- 
god Gibil in the Epic does in fact indicate another tradition concerning 
the destruction of the wicked gods. The view adhered to in the Epic 
is that Marduk had mercy upon the bound gods and made them demons 
of the lower world. The hymn sung by the priest after speaking of the 
burning of the mighty ones goes on to say that ' he has mercy upon 
them '. These disparate traditions are confused here, but the confusion 
did not disturb the poets and mystagogues in the least. For the burning 
of Kingu see Zimmern, Neujahrsfesl\ 131, 9, and note 2, where he 
compares the burning of the animal in Daniel 7 and in the Apocalypse 
of John 20. 

2 2 Ritual of the Third Day 

the curse as one of the weapons employed by Marduk 
against Tiamat, and see also Book VII ii with note. 
This hjmn is only partially preserved, and the remaining 
directions for the second day are lost. 

Early on the morning of the third day the high priest 
must rise and bathe and say a prayer (secretly before 
Bel). The text of this prayer or hymn is entirely broken 
away. He then opens the doors and the priests and 
psalmists enter to perform the ordinary rituals. Now 
a metal-worker is summoned three hours after sunrise 
who makes two statues with precious stones and gold 
for the ceremony of the sixth day. Then a carpenter 
is called and given cedar wood and tamarisk, and a 
silversmith, to whom he gives gold. Each statue must 
be seven fingers high, one of cedar, one of tamarisk, 
and adorned with gold and precious stones. One statue 
holds in his left hand a serpent made of cedar, and lifts 
his right hand to Nebo in prayer. The other statue 
holds in his left hand a scorpion, and with his right hand 
prays to Nebo. They are clad in red garments and 
their loins are bound with branches of the date palm. 
They remain in the temple of the god Sakut ^ until 
the sixth day. The tablet here anticipates the ritual 
of the sixth day by saying that on that day a sword- 
bearer shall smite them on the head and burn them in 
fire before Nebo. The statues apparently refer to two 
of the monsters bound and burned (') by Marduk, but 
the meaning of Nebo's presence here is not evident. 
He as god of wisdom of course came to Babylon from 
Barsippa for the festival, but he had no role in the 
Epic of Creation, to which these statues obviously refer. 
They probably represent the bahnu (viper) and the 
akrab-amelu (scorpion man) in the Epic. See the list 

' A solar deity, and form of Ninurta, but also related to Marduk. 
For a discussion of this deity see my Babylonian Liturgies, 120 n. 6. 

Ritual of the Fourth Day 23 

of the monsters of Chaos in Book I 140-2. Here again 
the divergent tradition of the burning of these monsters 

On the morning of the fourth day three and one-third 
hours before sunrise the high priest must rise and bathe ; 
he now comes before Bel and BeHt (Marduk and Zarpanit) 
and recites a prayer to Marduk and one to Zarpanit. 
Here again certain passages of the Epic are clearly in 
the mind of the composers.^ He now comes out from 
Marduk's sanctuary into the great court, and facing north 
he recites a hymn known as ' Canal star, Esagila, imita- 
tion of heaven and earth '. Dilgan or Cetus (the Canal 
star) was identified with Babylon, and at this hour of the 
morning should be rising heliacally at the spring equinox. 
He blesses Marduk's temple and opens the doors. The 
priests and psalmists enter and perform the ordinary 
ceremonies. On the fourth day, after the 'little meal' '^ 
at the end of the day, the high priest recited before 
Marduk the entire Epic of Creation ; during this recita- 
tion the ' crown of Anu ' and the ' throne of Enlil ' must 
be covered. Here ag^ain it is Enlil the earth-orod and 
not Ea, father of Marduk, who is in the mind of the 
celebrant. The older myth probably told of Anu and 
Enlil's refusal to wage war upon the giants of Chaos, 
and the covering of their presence is intended to signify 
their confusion. 

On the morning of the fifth day, four hours before 
sunrise, the high priest must rise and bathe, and put on 
a linen garment. He enters before Bel and Belit, and 
recites a prayer to each ; both prayers or hymns are in 

' Line 240, ebi'r sami-e, see note on IV 141, sami'-e ebir; 1. 241, murris 
eriiti, cf. VII i, siirik mtnsli. 

' kutlinnu,'M\e'. So Thureau-Dangin. Ste Riluels Accadiens, "1$, 
6 f. and p. 74. ' Meal ' refers here to one of the two evening sacrifices 
(the little sacrifice and the great sacrifice). 

24 Ritual of the Fifth Day 

Sumerian. These hymns are characterized by astral 
titles of Marduk and his consort, and by addresses to 
various planets. In one line the title of the Seventh 
Book of the Epic is cited. The hymns which inaugurate 
the ceremonies of the fifth day obviously reflect the 
thoughts of the astronomical poem in Book V of the 
Epic, as the hymn for the fourth day was more or less 
based upon Book IV of the Epic. The high priest now 
opens the doors of Bel's sanctuary and admits the priests 
and psalmists to perform the ordinary rituals.^ Two 
hours after sunrise the high priest, after the morning 
meals of Bel and Belit are finished, summons a priest 
of magic to purify the temple. The kettle-drum is 
sounded, torch and censer are brought to the middle 
of the temple, but the priest of magic must not enter 
the sanctuary of Bel and Belit. The magician then 
enters the sanctuary of Nebo (who has not yet arrived 
from Barsippa) and purifies it. In this ceremony a 
sword-bearer slays a sheep which the magician employs 
in the purificatory ceremony. The cadaver and head 
of the sheep are then cast into the river, the magician 
and sword-bearer standing with face to the west. Both 
of these participants in the rite of purgation of Nebo's 
sanctuary must then go out into the plain and not return 
as long as Nebo remains in the temple for the festival, 
that is from the fifth to the twelfth days of Nisan. 

At three and one-third hours after sunrise the high priest, 
who is forbidden to see any of this ritual of purgation, 
issues from E-umus-a, the sanctuary of Bel, and summons 

' The ritual of the psalmists probably consisted in singing one of the 
long Sumerian liturgies assigned to the day in question. It appears 
from these rubrics that the liturgy put down for each day was sung in 
the early morning. Translations oF a large number of these daily 
liturgies will be found in my Sumerian and Babylonian Psalms, Babylonian 
Liturgies, and in my two volumes of PBS. x, nos. 2 and 4. See the 
article ' Prayer' in Hastings's Encyclopaedia 0/ Religion and Ethics. 

Ritual of the Fifth Day 


craftsmen. The golden canopy of Marduk (to be held 
over his statue when he departs from E-umus-a) they 
bring out from Bel's treasury and then the entire sanctuary 
of Nebo is veiled.' The sanctuary of Nebo (Ezida) in 
this solar ritual represents the dark season of the year 
or the period when the nights are longer than the days. 
Bel, the rising spring sun, is about to issue from his 
sanctuary at the spring equinox. The high priest and 
the artisans now sing a hymn on the purification of the 
temple. The artisans then leave the temple. Later in 
the day the high priest re-enters Bel's sanctuary and 
prepares the table of Bel and Belit with choice food, 
golden vessels, and a censer. He now recites a prayer 
and tells Bel that he is about to go to the house of the 
New Year festival (akifii) which stood outside the city. 
The artisans now remove the table and carry it to 
Nebo's sanctuary ; this god arrives presently from 
Barsippa, in his ship Iddahcdu. The king now arrives, _ 
washes his hands, and is brought into the temple," but 

* The meaning of the veiling of Anu and Enlil on the fourth day sacred 
to the memory of Marduk's combat with the giants is intelligible, see p. 23, 
but why Nebo's sanctuary should be veiled is not at all comprehensible. 
According to the commentary on a ritual published in ZA. vi 241 by 
Strassmaier and partially translated in my PBS. x 330, so far as it 
concerns the myth of the summer and winter solstices, Ezida, or the 
temple of Nebo, represents the half of the year when the sun is south 
of the equator, or the period of night. 

'^ The king was compelled to be present at this festival, as we know 
from the Religious Chronicle of the thirteenth century. King, Chrotiides, 
ii 74, where his absence on the fifth day is recorded as an extraordinary 
event; and the Nabonidus Chronicle, KB. iii 130, 10, says that in Nisan 
Nabonidus the king in his ninth year came not to Babylon for the 
akitu, and Bel went not out. Nebuchadnezzar praises himself for 
bringing great sacrifices before Marduk and Nebo at this festival, VAB. 
iv 95, 7-17. Nabonidus also boasts of having celebrated the akitu of 
B^l, ibid. 285, 41. According to another passage, ibid. 283, ix 3-10, 
Bel-Marduk and the gods made the journey to the akilu, 'the house 
of sacrifices on the tenth day '. 

26 The King at the Ritual 

apparently not permitted to enter the sanctuary. The 
high priest takes from him the insignia of royal power, 
his sceptre, his circle and toothed sickle, which are taken 
into the presence of Bel and placed on a seat ; he returns, 
and havingf smitten the king's cheek he introduces him 
before Bel ; he pulls the king's ears and causes him to 
kneel. Here the ritual contains a prayer by the king 
in which he professes his upright conduct as king. He 
is for the moment reduced to the rank of a layman. 
He had received his authority from Bel and to Bel it 
had returned. The sign of his temporary reduction 
is the smiting of his cheek by a subject. The high 
priest now speaks to the royal penitent, promising him 
Bel's blessing and the augmentation of his sovereign 
power. The king retires from the chapel of Bel and the 
high priest brings him the sceptre, circle, and sickle. 
He again smites the king's cheek ; if the king sheds 
tears Bel is well pleased with him ; if tears flow not he 
will lose his throne. 

Forty minutes after sunset the high priest makes up 
a bundle of forty reeds each three cubits (about five feet) 
long and binds the bundle with a palm branch. A trench 
is dug in the temple court into which the reed bundle 
is placed ; a white bull is brought before the trench and 
the king sets fire to the reeds. The king and high 
priest recite a hymn to the ' Divine bull of Anu ', and 
here the text breaks away.^ 

' The white bull represents the constellation Taurus, which rose 
heliacally at the spring equinox when this ceremony began, that is before 
1900 B.C., according to Fotheringham, and the bull thus opened the 
year in ritual long after the sun had moved into Aries. Thureau-Dangin, 
ibid. 146 n. i, cites a passage from the Georgics of Virgil, which indicates 
that the Romans also knew the astronomical myth of the white bull who 
opens the year. Naturally the star Aldebaran was associated with the begin- 
ning of spring before 1900 B.C., when the Epic of Creation was written. 
The Sumerian name of Taurus was 'star of the bull of heaven', often 

Ritual of the Sixth to Eleventh Days 27 

The authentic rituals for the days 6-1 1 are unknown. 
Marduk and the gods assembled in Esagila, probably on 
the sixth. The procession of all the gods from Esagila 
to the akiiic house of the New Year's sacrifices, outside 
the Ishtar gate to the north of the city, occurred on the 
tenth, and the sacrifices were made on the last day. 
This we know from historical references cited above 
(p. 25 n. 2, p. 26 n. i). The great assembly of the gods 
in Ubsukkina to declare fates for the New Year occurred 
on the eighth before the procession, and on the eleventh 
after the return to Esagila from the house of sacrifices. 
This is known from an inscription of Nebuchadnezzar.^ 

A fragment 2 clearly contains the ritual for a later 
phase of the festival, and begins with the entry of Bel 
into the chamber of fates, which occurred apparently on 
the eighth day. The tablet belongs to one of those 
Babylonian series which contain the rituals on one set 
of tablets and the prayers on another set. This frag- 
ment contains only the prayers for certain days, and 
first of all the prayer after the fates are determined 
on the eighth day(?), which exhorts Bel and Belit, 
Tasmet and Ishtar to come forth (and proceed to the 

called by the Semites ^i^akkab Li-e, 'Star of the tablet (of fates)'. 
According to Kugler, Sternhmde, Erganzungen, 229, the rising of the 
Pleiades in Taurus marked the beginning of the solar mean year in 
the time of the First Dynasty. In the late period with which we are 
concerned in this ritual the mean solar year was fixed by the rising 
of Alpha in Aries, Kugler, ibid. 228. The New Year festival actually 
kept to the rising of the Pleiades for centuries after the sun had passed 
from Taurus into Aries, and in the thirteenth century the festival actually 
occurred in Ajar, King, Chronicles, ii 73, where the sacrifices at the 
akilu occur on the eleventh day (see also Jfnsen, KB. vi" 24, 7). The 
rising of Aries fixed the beginning of the year in the period of 
Nebuchadnezzar, but the old hymns applicable to the beginning of the 
year with Taurus remain unchanged. 

' VAB. iv 127, 54-65. 

" K. 9876, in transcription only by Zimmern, Neujahrsfest^ , 136-43. 

28 The New Year at Erech 

house of sacrifice). We next find the gods in the 
chamber by the bend {si-hir) of the river, by which 
the aki/u is clearly meant." The hymn to Marduk, here, 
is in fact a survival of an older stage of the New 
Year festival, when Enlil of Nippur (with his son 
Ninurta) was the principal character in the Epic of 
Creation. It is addressed to 'Enlil in Nippur'. After 
a longf break which brincrs us near to the end of the 
ceremonies of the ninth (?) and tenth (?) days, the text 
begins in the midst of a hymn which suggests to the 
gods that they now return to their various temples 
and cities. 

So much for authentic ritual of the New Year at 
Babylon on the ist-iith of Nisan. A New Year's 
festival at Erech was celebrated at the beginning of the 
second half of the year, reckoning by a year based upon 
the spring equinox. At Erech the religious calendar 
fixed two New Year festivals, one as at Babylon in 
Nisan and one in Tesrit, each respectively the survival 
of old Sumerian spring and autumn calendars.^ The 
double New Year festival survived also at Ur and 
probably at most Sumerian cities. At Erech it consisted 
in the procession of Anu from his temple to the house 
of sacrifice {akitu), and at Ur the same ceremony cer- 
tainly obtained for the god Sin. So far as they have 
any relation to the Epic of Creation, naturally the Erech 
spring festival has special interest. But the celebration 
of the New Year of Nisan at Erech does not mention 

' See Jensen, KB. vi- 35 and Thureau-Dangin, Ri'iueh, 147. 

° The texis of the Erech autumn ritual are AO. 6459, Th.-D., Rituels, 
iiii~1, and AO. 6465, ibid. p. 72 ; the edition of the ritual will be found, 
ibid. 86-99. The Erech Nisan ritual was published by Ebeling, KAR. 
132, and edited first by Zimmern, Neujahrsfest'^, 20-35. ^^^ \dXtx by 
Th.-D., Riiiieh. 99-108, _who was able to restore some lines from the 
parallel autumn festival. 

Commentaries on the Mysteries 29 

Marduk at all, makes no reference to the Epic of 
Creation, nor to the older Sumerian combat between 
Enlil or Ninurta and the giants of Chaos. This celebra- 
tion also lasted eleven days, and the king must be 
present here also.^ The Epic of Creation was probably 
ignored entirely by the older cults of the south, and 
regarded by their ancient priesthoods as a poem and 
myth of local origin, a conceit of the new priesthood 
of Babylon. The festival at Babylon consequently 
differed in nearly every detail from that of the older 

But now let us come to the occult- tablets on which 
the mystagogues of Babylon wrote^TtTeiF^urious inter- 
pretations of the festival. The most important tablet 
carries thirty-six lines on the obverse, the top and 
bottom being broken away, and the reverse is almost 
entirely destroyed.^ It belongs to a series of tablets 
which contained the secret meaning of each act of the 
long eleven-day celebration. In view of the fact that 
we possess less than half of the actual ritual and only 
a small section of the commentary, we are of course 
not likely to find the comments applicable to any known 
part of the ritual. According to Zimmern's restoration 
of the first line some one goes to a trench or ditch,* 
stands there, and casts something into it ; this is said to 
refer to [Ninurta ?] who cast him into the nether sea for 
Enlil and confided hitn to the Anunnaki. It refers to 
the older myth of the son of Enlil, who bound the 

^ Theoretical ly the king was present at certain vital parts of every New 
Year festival in each city, but that was of course impossible, and as 
a substitute he sent his royal garments. See Th.-Dangin, Rituels, 
57 "• 95 ^nd 146 n. 4. 

'^ K. 3476 in CT. 15, 43-4. Translated by Zimmern, Neuj'ahrs/esl^, 

' biiru. 


30 Pantomime in the Epic * 

draeons and cast them into the lower world. The ritual 
for the fifth day mentions a trench (1. 457) into which 
the high priest casts a bundle of forty reeds and which 
the king sets on fire. If the commentary really applies 
to this passage, the forty reeds represent monsters bound 
and cast into hell-fire. The commentary then says that 
the fire, which (the king ?) lights, is Marduk, who in his 
youth . . . } The next act commented upon concerns 
certain participants who hurl firebrands. These persons 
represent the gods, Marduk's fathers and brothers, when 
they heard (of his birth?), and these gods (i.e. the 
priests) kiss some object which is interpreted to mean 
Marduk, whom Ninlil in his infancy raised to her knees 
and kissed. Again the old myth of Enlil and his consort 
Ninlil, parents of Ninurta (not Marduk), reappears. 

In the ritual a fire is kindled before Ninlil and a sheep 
placed upon an oven ; this means Kingu, the husband 
of the dragon Tiamat, who was burned by Marduk. 
Firebrands are lighted from the oven, and these mean 
the arrows from the quiver of Bel-Marduk, and the gods 
his fathers who bound ''"Zu and '^"Asakku ^ in their 
midst. The king (whose presence at the ritual began 
on the fifth day) lifts a dumaki (weapon ?) above his 
head ; this means Marduk, who lifted his weapons above 
his head and consumed the sons of Enlil and Ea * with 
fire. The king breaks a vessel with a lisnu ; this means 
Marduk, who bound Tiamat (?) in his victory (?). 

The king tosses (sic !) a roasted bread ; that means 

' ZiMMERN makes here the natural inference that the text refers to 
some vaHant deed of the infant Marduk. 

^ The bound gods were cast into the lower world and became evil 
demons, the Asakku. The text is not clear at this point. 

' This refers to some mythical demons not mentioned in the Semitic 
version of the Epic. The seven Asakku sons of Anu, the conquest of 
Ninurta, in KAR. 142 ii 9-10, are probably referred to here. «i 

Ritual Acts Explained 2>i 

Marduk and Nebo who . . . and Anu bound him and 
broke him. The king stands at a station and into his hand 
is put a . . . and a psahnist recites a hymn entitled 
' Goddess Namurrit ' ; this means Marduk who ... his 
feet in the . . . of Ea placed and the planet Venus. . . . 
The king (?) tosses a . . . ; that means the heart of Ea 
as he pondered ' and in his hands. . . . The ritual now 
mentions a cavalryman who with a sweet fig . . . and 
who being brought in before the god (Marduk ?) shows 
the figf to the orod and to the king ; this means him who 
was sent to Enlil - and whose hand Nergal took.^ He 
who entered Esagila and showed his weapon to Marduk 
and Zarpanit, who kissed him (or it }) ; that means. . . . 
The eunuchs who shout and sing in the plain . . . who 
smite the . . . and utter wails, lifting each other up and 
distracting ike senses ; these mean those who against 
Enlil * and Ea (uttered) loud cries and poured out their 
terror against them, and whose . . . they severed and 
threw into the nether sea. 

Here the tablet breaks away. It is, however, quite 
clear that it contains certain rituals of the festival of the 
New Year based upon various creation myths, and that 
it refers to the ceremonies from the end of the fifth day 
onward. The hymn to Marduk on the eleventh day, 
a bilingual composition arranged for choral recital, has 
been recovered, but it has no bearing upon the Epic of 

' Cf. Book I 6i or II 97. 

2 iiu££_ This ideogram usually means Enlil in Assyrian and Ea in 
Babylonian. But for ''«i5^ = Enlil in Babylonian, see V Raw. 47 b 6, 
^■Elim-ma (i. e. Enlil) = <^BE. 

' Here again there is nothing in the Epic which corresponds to the 

* Enlil here and above (n. 2) probably refers to Marduk. 

' K. 4933 in IV Raw. 18, no. 2, restored from a Babylonian duplicate 
by Weissbach, Miscelkn, 36-41. See also Jensen, KB. vi^ 36-41. The 

32 New Year Festival at AUiir 

The German excavations at the old capital of Assyria 
not only provide the oldest texts of the Epic of Creation, 
but they also prove the existence of a New Year's 
festival there, very similar to the celebration at Babylon. 
The information concerning the celebration at Babylon 
was intimately connected with the myths of the Epic of 
Creation which glorified Marduk. This Epic profoundly 
influenced the religion of Assyria, more so in fact than 
any other Babylonian poem. At Assur the priests 
substituted their national deity Asur for Marduk, and 
a temple for the sacrifices of the New Year's festival w 
akitu was discovered outside the city wall of Assur. 
A fragment of the hymn sung to Marduk on the eleventh 
day of Nisan was recovered at Assur.^ Another Assur 
text mentions the seven great gods who participated in 
the saSJiarti «] taluku la '"'"'^Nisan, manoeuvres and 
procession of the month of Nisan (Ebeling, KAR. 142 
Obv. II 25-33), and among them neither Marduk nor 
his Assyrian substitute Asur occurs. Ij 

The ritual of the New Year at Babylon placed another 
aspect of Marduk in clear light. He, like Ninurta, upon 
whose cult the new Babylonian worship was based, figured 
as a solar g od, and the chief significance of the Epic and | 
the ritual of the spring equinox consisted in the return of 
the sun from the regions of winter darkness, the victory 
of light over the dragon of storm and night. 1 1 was, there- 
fore, natural that a myth concerning Marduk's descent 
into the lower world and his resurrection should have 
arisen at Babylon. This myth, and the ritual to which 

colophon says that it was sung when Bel entered Esagila from the house 
of sacrifice. 

' Ebeling, KAR. 106. It is probably redacted with the name 
^'■^Asur for Marduk. The akitu at Assur was also situated near the river 
as at Babylon, and the procession of the gods from the city to the house 
of sacrifice was really a voyage in boats for at least part of the journey. 


Marduk and Tamniuz 33 

it gave form, was probably inspired more or less by the 
ancient cult of Tammuz, the young god of vegetation, who 
died yearly, sojourned in the lower world, and returned to 
the upper world.^ This parallel cult of Marduk as a solar 
deity has no direct bearing upon the Epic of Creation, 
but its details are so important that it cannot be omitted 
here. The only source at present available for this 
mystic ceremony of the death and resurrection of Bel 
was not recovered in Babylonia but at Assur.^ The 
text has a colophon, but it makes no mention of an 
original at Babylon. It may be assumed, then, that this 
mysterious rite was also practised in Assyria. The text 
has attracted wide attention in theological circles, more 
especially for its apparent relation to the death and 
resurrection of the founder of Christianity. Zimmern, 
the first interpreter, made much of this point and drew 
up a parallel table of the leading features of the ritual 
and the arrest, trial, scourging, crucifixion, and resurrec- 
tion of Jesus. The text will undoubtedly become the 
subject of much theological discussion, and an authentic 
English version should not be omitted here. I give 
both transcription and translation. 

' The cult of Tammuz is fully described in the writer's Tammuz and 

- Ebeling, KAR. 143, translated by Zimmern, Neujahrs/esP-, 2-21. 
Zimmern later discussed this tablet with special reference to the pre- 
Christian mystery cults in a lecture delivered at Jena, September 1921, 
and published under the title Bahylonische Vorslufen der vorderasiatischen 
Mysterienreligionen, ZDJNIG. 76, 36-54. 


I. [ ^ "^"Bel su-u ina hur-sa-an ik-]ka-li 

2 un-ni 

3 u-se-sa-as-su 

4 /]-da-la amelu mar fipri sa bele-su man- 

nu li-se-sa-as-su 

5 il-lak-u-ni u-se-sa-as-su-ni 

6 i-]ra-kab-u-ni a-na hur-sa-an su-ii il-Iak 

7. ..... . il-lak-u-ni bitu su-u ina eli sap-te sa 

hur-sa-an ina libbi i-sa-'-vi-lu-su 

8. ['^"JVadu sa islu Bar-s\ip-{ki) il-!ak-an-ni a-na 

sul-me sa abi-su sa sa-bit-u-ni su-u il-la-ka 

9 sa ina su-ka-ka-a-te i-du-lu-u-ni ^^"Bel 

li-ka-u'-ma ai-ka sa-bit 

10 ^ sa kate-sa tar-sa-a-ni a-na ''"Sin 

''"Samas tu-sal-la ma-a "'"Bel biil-li-su 

I I . [bab 'Y'-- sa tal-lak-u-ni bab ka-bu-rat su-ii 

tal-lak tu-ba-['a-su] 

' The principal fragment, VAT. 9555, contains the upper half of the 
Obverse and lower half of theT<.everse. A duplicate, VAT. 9538, which 
supplies much of the missing section of the major tablet, was utilized by 
ZiMMERN. For this duplicate scholars must at present depend upon 
Zimmern's transcription. 

^ Restorations after Zijimern, when not otherwise indicated. 

' That is the ' lower world '. The month of Tammuz was known as 
the arah kimiluvi ^^'^[Tammuz'], ' Month of the binding of Tammuz ', 
SBH. 145 (5 13, which indicates the source of tiie m)th of the binding 
and imprisonment of Marduk. 


I ; that is Bel who was confined in the 


2. . . . . 

3 .he brings him forth. 

4 a messenger of his lords hastens 

(saying), ' Who brings him forth ? ' 

5. He who goes and brings him forth. 

6. He who rides ; that is he who to the 

mountain ^ goes. 

7. To which he goes ; that is the house on 

the edge of the mountain ^ wherein they question him. 

8. [Nebo who from] Barsippa comes ; that is he who 
comes (to seek) after the welfare of his father (Marduk) 
who is held captive. 

9. The who in the streets hasten ; they seek 

for Bel (saying), ' Where is he held captive ?' 

10. The who stretches out her hands ; she 

prays to Sin and Shamash saying, ' Give life to Bel '. 

1 1 . [The gate of the ]-s, to which she 

goes ; that is the gate of the grave * ; she goes there 
seekincr him. 


■* Here probably Zarpanit, wife of Marduk, corresponding to Ishtar, 
who seeks for Tammuz in the lower world. 

" Here is a clear reference to the grave of Bel, where he was supposed 
to lie while his sou! sojourned in the lower world until the resurrection. 
Strabo, Book XVH 5, mentions the grave of Bel as one of the striking 
features of Babylon in the Greek period, 6 toS BryAov rac^os avroBi. 
Aelian ( Variae Hislonae, xiii 3) says that Xerxes dug into this tomb and 
found a glass coflin in which lay a corpse in oil, and the oil filled the 
coffin up 10 within a hand-breadih of the rim. By this tumulus stood 
a stela bearing this inscription, ' It will not be well with him who opens 

C 2 


6 The Death and Resurrection 

12. [ ]ma-a-se sa ina Mbi sa E-sag-ila i-za-zu- 

u-ni """''massare-su su-nu ina eli-su pak-du i-na-sa-[ru-su] | 

13 ia ku-ri[ ]e-pi-su-ni ^ a-ki ilani 

e-si-ru-su-ni ih-ti-lik ina libbi napidti'^ a 

14. \_ana bit w^-]si-ri sam-[si u] nuri istu lib-bi us-si-ri- J 

du-nis-[su] * 

15 sa ina sapli-su ?Z'-tar-ri-ba sa lab-bu- 

su-ni ^ mi-ih-si sa mah-hu-su-ni-su-nu " ina dame-su 

\sar-p^i\ -i 

16. [2/- *]tum sa is-[si-]su kam-mu-sa-tu-ni a-na sul- 

me-su ta-ta-[rad] •■ 

1 7. [mar ''"As-sur] ^ sa is-si-su la il-lak-u-ni ma-a la bel 

hi-it-ti a-na-ku ma-a la us-sa-ta-am-mah-[has] 

the coffin and fills it not'. Having read this Xerxes feared and com- 
manded oil to be poured into the coffin quickly, but it filled not up. 
Again he commanded oil to be poured in, but it received no increase, 
and he abandoned the task. Having closed the sepulchre he fled sorely 
troubled. And the stela deceived not, for Xer.xes, ha\ing collected a host 
against the Greeks, fled unhappily. Having returned, he died most 
disgracefully, for by night his own son cut his father's throat as he slept. 
Strabo says that Xerxes destroyed this sepulchre, which was a pyramid 
made of burnt brick ; its height was a stade and each side was a stade. 
Alexander desired to rebuild this pyramid, and spent much labour and 
ume upon it. But the removal of the earth which had fallen occupied 
10,000 men two months, and he gave it up. Disease and death befell 
the king, and after him no one cared for it. Diodorus Siculus (xvii 112), 
describing the entry of Alexander into Babylon, says that the seers sent 
out a delegation to warn him that a king who entered Babylon would die. 
But this might be avoided by rebuilding the tomb of Bel which the 
Persians had destroyed. It is obvious that these traditions refer to 
the great stage tower of Babj'lon, Etemenanki, whose sides are now 
known to have been 180 cubits and height 192 cubits according 
to the ScHEiL Esagila tablet, which apparently omits the sixth stage. 
The cubit employed here equals 0.50 metre approximately, and the sides 
measure 90 metres, or about 300 feet. The height is about 320 feet. 
Herodotus agrees with Sirabo in giving the length of each side and the 

o./"Bel-Marduk 37 

12. The twins who at the gate of Esagila 

stand ; these are his watchmen ; they are appointed to 
guard him. 

13. The who make lament; (that means) 

when the gods bound him he perished from among the 
living ; 

14. [Into the house of bondage] from the sun and 
light they caused him to descend. 

15. The which touch him beneath and with 

which they clothe him ; these are the wounds with which 
they wound him ; with his blood \tliey are dyed\ 

16. The goddess who tarries * with him has descended 
(to seek) for his welfare. 

17. \The son o/Ahtr] who goes not with him, saying, 
' Not am I a sinner', and ' Not shall I be wounded' ; 

height of the pyramid as a stade, which exaggerates the real measurements 
twofold. See RA, 15, 59 and 15, iii, and Weissbach, OLZ. 1914, 197. 
This lofty stage tower was connected with the legend of BSl's death and 
descent into the lower world in the Greek period, and the tale must have 
been widely believed in Western Asia as late as our own era. Ctesias, 
£pt/. Pholii, § 21, preserves a different legend of the tomb of Bel. 
He says that Xerxes went to Babylon longing to see the grave of 
BTjAirava, and saw it by the aid of Mardonius. But he was unable 
to fill it. Bel-itanas has been explained as Bel-Etana, or ' Etana is Ber, 
on the assumption that in some way the ancient hero Etana (later 
deified), who is said to have ascended to heaven on the back of an eagle, 
was identified with Bel-Tammuz, the dying god. So Lehmann-Haupt, 
Orieiitalische Siudkn Noldeke . . . gewidmet. 998 ff. The thesis is not 
convincing, and the Bel-itanas of Ctesias still remains unexplained. 

' ZijuiERN construes epihi as a permansive, but cf. the subjunctive 
permansive ep-ht-ti-tii, 1. 55. It appears to be for the Prs. epA, eppas, 


' ZI-JI/ES? ' For these Prm. piels, cf. Ylvisaker, LSS. v 6, p. 34. 

* So ZlMMERN. 

^ For kamasu, kneel, in this sense, cf. H. L. 1360, 10, ina eli ndri 

" Restored from 1. 19. But doubtful. One expects here the name of 
some priest who acts in the ritual as representative of the ' son of Asur '. 

38 The Death and Resurrection 

1 8. [ ] '''"As-sur di-na-ni ' ina pa-ni-su ip-ti-u 

di-na-ni i-di-nu 

19. [su-u sa is]-si-su la il-Iak-u-ni mar '''"As-sur 5u-u-tu 
ma-su-ru su-ii ina muh-hi-su pa-kid ilu bir-tu ina muh- 

hi-su i-na-[as-sar] 

20. [kakkadu sa] ina 'V«tal-li sa '''''' Be-1 it Bab-ili-(ki) 
'i-la-an-ni kakkadu sa bel hi-it-ti sa is-si-su i-m[ah-ha- 

su-ni] ' 
2 I . [u i-]da-ku-su-ni su-tu. kakkad-su ina ^"^ *] sa 

'■'''" Be-lit Bab-ili-(ki) e-ta-'a-[/K] 

22. \^^"Nabil ]sa a-na Bar-sip-(ki) i-sa-hur-u-ni il-lak- 

u-ni '?"tal-[li] sa ina libbi-su is-sa-na-[i;rt«-«-«?] 

23. \di'-kt\s.3.''"^t\ ina hur-sa-an il-lik-u-ni alu ina eli- 

[su] it-ta-bal-kat ka-ra-bu ina libbi-su i-pu-sw^ 

24. atnati sa sahe sa ina pan harrani sa ''"Nabu ki-i 

istu " Bar-sip-(ki) il-la-kan-an-ni i-kar-ra-bu-ni 

25. ''"Nabu' sa il-lak-an-ni ina muh-hi i-za-zu-u-ni 
im-mar-u-ni bel hi-it-ti sa itti "'"Bel su-tu-[ni su-u] 

26 ki-i ' sa itti ''"Bel su-tu-ni im-[mar] 

27. '""'^masmase sa ina pa-na-tu-su il-lik-u-ni si-ip-tam 
i-ma-an-nu-?<-«z nise-su su-nu ina pa-na-tu-su u-na-bu-[u 

28. ''""'"mah-hu-u sa ina pan ''"'Be-lit Bab-ili-(ki) il-la- 
ku-u-ni amelu mu-pa-si-ru su-u a-na irti-sa i-bak-ki- 


29. . . . ma-a a-na hur-sa-an ub-bu-Iu-su si-i ta-da-ra ^^ 

ma-a ahu-u-a ahu-u-a 

^ dinanu, judgement, is not well documented. Cf. di-na-an-ni-a 
"i^^idaiane, Schroeder, KAV. 6 Rev. 6. 

- In 1. 12 watchmen are appointed at the grave of Rrarduk-Bel, but 
1. 19 probably refers to the confinement in the lower world. 

' ZiMMERN restores i-rid-du-lu-ni, ' whom they lead away '. 

o/Bel-Marduk 39 

1 8. '[For the ] of Asur have revealed my 

judgement before him and have declared my judge- 
ment ' ; 

19. [^T/ih one] who goes not with him, this son of Asur, 
he is a watchman, he is appointed over him, he guards 
the prison over him.^ 

20. \^Tke head -whlcW] is bound to the door of Beltis of 
Babylon, that is the head of the malefactor whom they 

21. and slay with him. His head they dind to the 
neck (?) of Beltis of Babylon. 

22. [Nebo ] who returns to Barsippa and who in the 
gate was />/aa'd, 

23. after Bel went to the mountain (lower world) ; 
(that means) the city fell into tumult because of him and 
fighting within it they made. 

24. The reed pigsties which are before the way of 
Nebo, as he comes from Barsippa to adore him, 

25. Nebo who comes and stands over (him), and 
regards him ; that means this sinner who is with Bel. 

26 that he is with Bel he sees. 

27. The priests of incantation who go before him' 
reciting an incantation ; they are his people, who wail 
before him. 

28. The Magi who goes before the Beltis of Babylon ; 
that is the messenger, he weeps before her, 

29. . . . saying, ' Unto the mountain (lower world) 
they have taken him ' ; she goes down (?) saying ' O my 
brother, O my brother ' 

' ZiMMERN supplies gii = hsadu, neck ? 

' ZiMMERN, «/>(?)-/>?< ?-«^. " ^-^^ Cf. 1. 8. 

■' Perhaps a sign gone at the beginning of the line. 

« Text kan ! ' Nebo. 

'" For ia-ta-rad} Zimmern reads ta-ta-rad, ' she cries out ' (?). 

40 The Death and Resurrection 

30. . . . la-bu-su-su sa a-na '''''Belit-Uruk-(ki) u-se- 

bal-u-ni ku-zip-pi su-nu It-ta-[ba-lu-ni-su] 

31. lu-u kaspu lu-u hurasu lu-u abne -su sa istu libbi 
E-sag-ila a-na ekurrati u-se-su-u-ni bit-su su-u-tu 

■X2. •"^''''se-ir-i-tu - sa lab-bu-su-ni ina ka-dam-me 


33. si-iz-bu sa ina pan ''"'Istar sa Ninua i-hal-li-bu-ni 
ni-mi-il si-i tu-ra-bu-su-ni ri-e-mu u-ka-al-lim-us-[su-ni] 

34. e-nu-ma e-lis [sa da-bi-ib-u-ni ina pan ''"B]el ina 
""""-Nisanni i-za-mur-ii-su-ni ina eli sa sa-bit-u-ni su-u 

35. svi-ul-li-e-su-nu u-sal-la su-ra-ri-su-nu i ^-sa-[ra-ar] ' 

36. [urugallu ?] su-tu i-da-bu-ub ma-a dam-ka-a-te sa 

''"Assur si-na e-ta-pa-as ma-a mi-i-nu hi-[it:-ta-su] 

37 sa sami-e i-da-gal-u-ni ana "'"Sin '^"Samas 

u-sal-la ma-a bul-li-[ta-an-]ni 

' For kuzippu, a kind of robe, see Meissner, SuppL, and Behrens, 
LSS. ii I, pp. 16, 33, 91; K. 3500 i 16 in Winxkler, Forschungen 
{kuzippu ina lani-kumi)\ K. 659 R. 4 ;, Harper, Letters, 11 26, 11. 

"^ In the Sippar cult tablet V 44, 52, 54 ; VI 3 the se-ri-'-tu garment is 
mentioned as the raiment for the sun-god, his consort, and his attendant 

Bunene; V Raw. 61. K. 4211 Obv. 15 explains [ ]-/«ot by ser- 

'i-tu in list of garments. Zimmern connects the word ^^^th ser'il, grain, 
vegetation, and renders 'garment of grain heads', Ahrengewand. See 
also 1. 53. 

' Or katavunu ? a garment ? See 1. 56. 

^ haldhi, denominative of hildhu, milk? cognate of Heb. 3pn^ &c. 
The ritual refers to the Epic I 85-6. nimilu, sucking, probably derived 
from 7iy, to nurse by suckling. The verb ewelu, emelii has not been 
found in Assyrian. 

" The Epic of Creation ' When on high ' was recited before Bel in the 
evening of the fourth day of the New Year festival of Nisan, Thureav- 
Dangin, Ritiieh, 136, 279-84. This proves that the ritual of Bel's death 
and resurrection was held at the same time. The fragment Rm. 275, 

o/ B el-Mar DUK 41 

■^o. . . . his earments which he causes to be brought 
to Beltis of Erech ; these are his raiment^ which they 
[took from him]. 

31. Be it silver, be it gold, be it his jewels which he 
causes to be brought forth from within Esagila unto the 
temples ; that means his temple which 

32. The hrilu garment in which he (Marduk) was 
clothed ; that means in a coffin (?) (kadammii) ^ 

33. The milk which before Ishtar of Nineveh they 
milk ; * that is she who reared him by suckling, showing 
him mercy. 

34. ' When on high ' which is recited and which before 
Bel in the month Nisan they sing; because he was 
bound it is ; he was ^ 

35. Their prayers he prays and their implorations he 

36. This hi^h priest recites saying : ' These benefactions 
for Asur I do' ; saying, ' What is his sin ? ' * 

37. The who looks to heaven ; that means he 

prays to Sin and Shamash saying, ' Restore me to life '; ^ 

discussed below, Rev. 4, has [ i-za]-mu-ru-u-su-m itia eli la sa- 

bil-ii-ni hi-u\^ ] 

« VAT. 9538, u. 

' These prayers, together 'viih the recitation of the Epic, were said by 
the high priest in Marduk's chapel E-umiis-a. The antecedent of hinu 
is probably Bel and Beltis of Babylon, or in the service at Assur it refers 
to Assur and his consort. 

' ZiMMERN restored hi-it-tu-a. Rm. 275 has a different text ; [ 

damkati la] ''"Al-lur li-na e-ta-pa-al ina eh pi-lii^) ''"Al-sur la 

If pi/i be the correct reading, and ' Because of the humiliation of ASur ' 
the right rendering, it follows that in the Assyrian ritual Ahtr is 
substituted for Marduk. Then the restoration hi-il-la-lu, ' What is his 
sin' in 1. 36 would be more likely. 

" Rm. 275 has here, as in 1. 10, a priestess or a goddess who prays 

for the resurrection of Bel ; [.' ana] ^'•^A -nim i^'^^Sin ^'■"'Samas 

'^"/iamman tu-^a-al-la \ma-a bitl-lit-sul]. The As§ur text interprets the 
act to mean that Bel in the lower world prays for his own release. On 
Rm. 275 the god Enki now appears in the ritual. 

42 The Death and Resurrection 

38 sa kak-ku-ru i-da-gal-u-ni hu-ur-ni-su ina 

eli-su kay-x\x-\\\ ina eli sa istu libbi hur-sa-an il-[lak- 


39. \amchi mic-pa-si-ru sa iftf\ ^"^"Bel a-na bit d-ki-ti 
la u-su-ni u sa """'^sa-ab-te i-na-as-si i-si-su 


40. ['^'"'Belit] Babili-{ki) (?) sa ina libbi bit a-ki-ti /a 

/a-«/-lak-u-ni zinnisat sa-ki-in-tu sa biti [si-i ?] ^ 

41 -ti biti tu-di-i ma-a bita us-ri ina kate- 

ki u-[= ] 

42. [ '''^'Belit-] Bab-ili-(ki) sa atii ina ku-tal- 

li-sa-ni sipi '= sarti ^ tal-pu ina pa-ni-[sa-ni ] 

43. \ina eli sa ka-t]u-us-sa da-mu sa sur-ri sa tab- 


44 sa um 8-kam sa "'"-Nisanni saha ina 

pa-ni-sa \-ta ^-\ba-lm-ni'\ 

45. [zinnisat sa-ki-in]-La sa biti si-i i-sa-'u-lu-si ma-]a 

man-nu bel hi-it-ti ma-a 

46 u-bal-u-ni bel hi-it-ti \-\>7iah-Jia-si(.-ni 


47 il-lak-u-ni AS{>) . MUT . Z/-sa' a-ki 

im-ma-ah-[ha-su-ni ] 

' Bel now is about to return from the lower world. The myth of his 
descent into hell is not confined to this ritual. As patron of springs 
and rivers a prayer describes him as follows : hel nakbe ladi u taviati 
ha-i-tu hur-sa-a-ni. Lord of the wells of the mountain and of the seas, he 
that paces the mountain (of the nether world); King, Magic, 12, 28. 

' Restored from K. 9138, 13. 

' Space for more signs. This is Zimmern's restoration. 

' Or temple? Bel descends into the lower world and a woman 
(Beltis) rules in his temple ! zinmsai seems to mean Beltis here. 

o/"Bel-Marduk 43 

38. The who looks toward the earth ; that 

means that his has been placed thereon, and 

it is because he comes from within the mountain.^ 

39. [The herald] ^ who with Bel to the house of the 

New Year's festival goes not out ; that means the 

of a prisoner he bears and with him he sits. 

40. The Beltis of Babylon who goes not into the 
house of the New Year's festival ; that is the woman 
who was placed over the house.* 

41. [To her they say, 'The of the temple 

thou knowest ', and again, ' Watch the temple and with 
thy hands ' 

42 Beltis of Babylon who binds an atil 

garment on her back, and a siptl of wool on her face 

43. [That is because she zvith her hand'\ the blood of 
the body which was poured out \wipes azvay].'' 

44. The before whom on the eighth of 

Nisan they slaughter a pig ; 

45. That is the woman who is placed over the temple ; 
they question her saying, ' Who is the malefactor ? ' and 
again, ' ' 

46 they take away and the malefactor they 


47. The who come as he is slain 

^ ZiMMERN restores ti-su-uh-hi, remove (?). 

^ Written Sig-TAB; for the reading sipti see RA. 13, 183, 28, si-pi. 
am is writlen sig-gig. tal-pu for ta-la-pti from alapu ? Zimmern corrects 
the text and reads sipat lab-ri-mu, ' bright wool '. 

' The restorations in this line are by Zimmern, and are extremely 

' Or i-ma-ah-ha-'iu-ni. 

* So the transcription of VAT. 9538, ibid. 

44 The Death and Resurrection 

48 -mu * me dr-his i-za-am-[mu-ru ] 5 

49. [ u-dal-]lah-hu-ni u-sar-ra-ru-u-ni me da- 

al-hu-te su-nu[ ] 

50 bil {?)-la (?) ba-ak-te (?) i-kar-ra-ru-ni sa 


51 sa ina libbi ''"^Nisanni a-na dannis 

ma-'-du-ni kemu ki-i sa-bit-u-ni 

52. me kate sa u-kar-rab-u-ni bi-id ih-kii-m su-u di-'i 

53. •"^'''se-ir-'-i-tu sa ina muh-hi-su sa i-ka-bu-u-ni ma-a 

me hi (?)nu-[/z] si-li-'-a-ti si-na 

54. su-u ina libbi e-nu-ma e-lis ik-ti-bu-u ki-i sami-e 

irsi-tim la ib-ba-nu-ni An-sar it-[tab-si] 

55. ki-i alu u bitu ip-su-u-ni su-u it-tab-si me sa ina 

eli An-sar [iu-uu-ma par-su-ma\^ 

56. su-u-tu sa hi-ta-su ina libbi ka-dam-me * su-tu 

e-si-ip la mi la-bis ka-dam-me 

57. li-is-mu sa ina """"-Nisanni ina pan ''"Bel u ma- 

ha-za-ni gab-bu i-kal-[la-du-ni] ^ 

' VAT. 9538 -u. 

' sararu, original sense, ' coil, flow in waves ", then ' flicker, glisten, 
shine'. Cf. CT. 16, 24, 23, a-gim ge-im-ma-an-sur-sur ziz ki'ma me 
lisrur, ' May it run away like water '. 

' This is the first line on the Reverse of VAT. 9555. According 
to Zimmern's edition VAT. 9538 fills in the entire break between the 
end of the Obverse and the beginning of the Reverse. 

* The obscure passage 52-5 refers to water employed in the ritual of 
washing the body or the ler'ilu garment of Ansar = Asur = Marduk- 1 ' 

o/ B E L - M A R D U K 45 

48. The who water quickly as they 


49. [The waters which] they make muddy 

and cause to run away ; ' they are the muddy waters 

50. The which they set forth which 

51. The which in the month Nisan are 

exceedingly plentiful ; that means when he was seized 

52. The water for the hand(washing) which they bring 
nigh after he has been taken away ; that is the misery 
zvhich ^ 

53. The hritic garment which is upon him is that of 
which they speak saying, ' These waters— they (mean) 
sorrows '. 

54. This is what they speak in the recital of ' When 
on high ', ' When heaven and earth were not created 
Ansar came into being, 

55. When city and house were made he came into 
being (and) the waters, which upon Ansar \are, were 
separated ?] 

56. This one whose sin is ; in a kadammil he is 
and in water is he not covered ; the kadammtl 

57. The race which in the month of Nisan before Bel 
and all the sacred places they run in frenzy ; 

Bel. The recital in 54-5 concerning the separation of the fresh waters 
from the salt waters is parallel to the numerous legends of the miraculous 
origin of plants and stones used in the rituals of incantations. The 
object is to show the mystical origin of the water employed in this ritual. 

^ Probably a Sumerian loan-word for coffin, composed of ki-dam ? 
Line 56 refers to the malefactor slain with Bel. Rm. 275 has here 
a verb sa u-hap-pa-tu-u-lu-ni, ' whom they plundered '. 

" Restored from Rm. 275. For the meaning oS. galadu, galdtu see 
Babyloniaca, ii 124 and Meissner, ATU. ii 59. 

46 TJie Death and Resurrection 


58. ki-i ''"As-sLir "'"Nin-urta ina eli ka-sa-di sa ''"Zi-i ^ | 

is-pur-u-ni [''"Nin-urta] r 

59. ilia pan """As-sur ik-tl-bi ma-a^ ''"Zu-u ka-si-id 

"""As-sur a-na ''"[Nusku ? ik-ii-bi'] * 

60. ma-a a-lik a-na ilani gab-bu pa-si-ir u-pa-sa-ar- | 

su-nu u su-nu ina eli ih-[du-u-ma] ^ 

61. da-ba-bu gab-bu sa ina lib-bi "'""'kale \i-dd-ab- 


62. sa ha-ba-a-te sa i-hab-ba-tu-su-ni sa u-sal-pa-tu- 

su-ni su-u ilani abe-su su-nu 

63. "'"Nusku sa E-sa-bad ib-bir-an-ni """''mar sipri 

su-u-tu ''"'gu-la ina muh-hi-su ta-sap-pa-ra 

64. subatu senu sa ina bit ''"'Be-lit Bab-ili-ki ub-bal- 

u-ni [w/-]it-hu-ur ^ su-u-tu u-se-bal-as-si 

65. [?]-mi-il ' a-na sa-a-su la u-sar-u-su-ni la li-su-u-ni 

' Rm. 275 adds ^'■'"■Ki-m-gu '^"A-sak-ku. 

'^ Rm. 275, [ma-~\a ^'"Zu-ii ''"A7-z>;-^« ^^"■A-sai-ku [kas-du]. 

' Rm. 275 after Airffhus probably I'/i. 

* That is the psalmists participate in the race reciting chants concerning 
the victory of Ninurta. 

^ Temple of Gula in Babylon. The original writing is e'-sa-iad. 
IR. 55 iv 40; RA. 16, 163, 29, e'-sa-bad\ see Boissier, ihid. p. 206, and 
perhaps in N. Pr. E-sd-be-ba-gub, Hussey, Sumerian Tablets, 40 i 2. 
» — C when read bad has the meanings pitu, to open, and nisil, reku, be 
far removed. Boissier, RA. 18, 43, has already observed the passages 
which confirm the reading bad. Schroeder, KAV. 42 R. 13 = 43 R. 26, 
sa-bad^ pi-ta-at iizni, i. e. ' Temple of her who opens the ears ', Temple 
of Gula as goddess of understanding. KAR. 109, 20, the mother 
goddess in E-sa-bad is pi-la-at iizni na-ba-at ta-bi-ni, ' opening the ear, 
proclaiming wisdom '. Hence sa = uziiu and bad^ pitii. For sa = uznti 
see CT. xi 30, 7 b, SA (sa-a^ = uz-\7ui\, and the original meaning of 
iabiuH from p3 divide, discern, is also 'ear', then 'wisdom'. See 
PiiN'CKERT, Kebo, p. 22, and RA. x 74, a-bad =■ labiiui, with sjiMu, bun 
zir-ri, both words for ear. Cf. K. 12056 in Meissner, Suppkmeyit, 
Obv. 1-3, tabhtit, also 'side wall', King, Creal., ii, App. V 78. This 

o/Bel-Marduk 47 

58. That means ; when Asur sent Ninurta to co nquer 
the god Zu, [Ninurta] 

59. before Asur spoke saying, ' Zu is conquered' ; and 
Asur spoke to the god Nusku(?) 

60. saying, ' Hasten unto all the gods, announce the 
tidings ' ; he announced the tidings to them and they 

61. All the words which therein * the psalmists recite, 

62. The plunder which they take as they cause him to 
be felled ; that means that the gods his fathers 

63. Nusku who passes by Esabad ; ° he is the 
messenger ; Gula sends him on his (Bel's) behalf. 

64. The clothing and sandals which they bring into 
the temple of Beltis of Babylon, this corresponds to, he 
brings (them) to her. 

65. A for him whom they allow not to escape 

and who cannot come forth. 

lale explanation of sa-bad may not be the original sense, for the scribe 
in KAV. 42 R. 14 — 43 R. 27 has another explanation; sa — nasaru 
and* — ( = kulmrii, and E-sa-BAD = bil jniur kuburu, 'Temple of him 
who protects the grave ', hence also a temple of some god ; clearly the 
explanation is based upon this ritual, and the legend of the grave of Bel. 
In fact this second explanation has no sound basis in the words sa-bad. 
sa = uznu, ear, is intelligible from the root sa, wisdom, counsel, Su7n. 
Gr. 235, and note possible variant sa in the early name E-sd-be-ba-gub. 
But sa is not a word for nasaru, and i.^ ^ = kuburu is possible only 
by reading the sign as idim, well, pit. Sum. Gr. 221. In fact this 
explanation is taken from the ritual without any regard to the real 
meaning of E-sa-bad. Nusku seems to have been regarded as the 
keeper of Bel's tomb, and Gula's temple which was drawn into this 
connexion by her intimate relation to Zarpanit or Beltis, who weeps 
for Bel, is made the subject of a fantastic linguistic explanation. Nusku 
passes by a temple of a mother goddess, one of the women who weep 
for Bel-Tammuz, and he was also keeper of the sepulc-hre of Bel until 
Bel's resurrection. By pure fancy sa-bad is made to refer to Nusku as 
nasir kuburi, ' keeper of the tomb '. 

" Text it-hu-ur I This is also Zimmern's conjecture. 

' ZiMMERN reads ni!-mi-il, but the te.\t is against this. 

48 The Death and Resurrection 

66. '^"narkabtu sa a-na bit a-ki-It tal-lak-u-ni ta-la- 

kan-an-ni bel-sa la-as-su sa la beli ta-sa-bu-'u 

67. u Hat sak-ku-ku-tu sa istu ali ta-lab-ba-an-ni ba- 

ki-su si-i istu ali ta-la-bi-a 

68. '^"dalat bir-ri^ sa i-ka-bu-u-ni ilani su-nu i-ta-as- 
ru-su ina biti e-tar-ba '"'dalta ina pani-su e-te-di-li 

69. su-nu hu-ur-ra-a-te ina libbi '^"dalti up-ta-li-su 

ka-ra-bu ina lib-bi up-pu-su 

70. man-nu sa dup-pu an-ni-u e-mar-ra-ku-u-ni lu-u 

ina me i-kar-ra-ar-u-ni 

71. u im-mar-u-ni a-na sa la u-du-u-ni ^ la u-sa-as- 


72. ''"As-sur ''"Sin ''"Samas ''"Ramman u ''"'Is-tar 

''"Bel ''"Nabu ''"Nergal ''"'Istar sa Ninua (ki) 

73. ''"'Istar sa alu Arba-ili ''"'Istar sa Bit-kit-mur-ri 

74. ilani §a sami-e irsi-tim u ilani mat Assur(ki) 


75. ar-rat la nap-su-ri ma-ru-us-tu li-ra-ru-su-ma a-di 

lime bal-tu ai ir-su-su ri-e-ma 

76. sum-su zer-su ina mati li-se-lu-u sere-su ina pi-i 

sa kal-bi lis-kun-nu 

' lahil, r\'h form of lahdbu. Cf. Craig, RT. ii 16, Gula la-ba-at uz- 
za-al, and K. 164, 5, ina irsi ta-lab-bi-a. 

^ For birrti, window, see Haupt, ASKT. 93, 27, ina ajili bir-ri at 
erub-su, By the aperture of the window may it not enter unto him ; and 
Meissner-Rost, BauinschrifUn Sanherib's, 10, 22, birri upatta, I made 

o/Bel-Marduk 49 

66. The chariot which goes speeding to the house of 
New Year's sacrifice without its master ; that means that 
without a master (Bel) it runs swiftly. 

67. And the dumbfounded goddess who from the 
city (goes) waihng ; that is his woman wailer who from 
the city (goes) weeping.^ 

68. The ' door with aperture ' as they call it ; that 
means that the gods confined him ; he entered into the 
' house ' and before him one locked the door ; 

69. They bored holes into the door and there they 
waged battle. 

70. Whosoever erases this tablet or puts it in water, 

71. and (whosoever) reads it for whom it is not lawful 
(to read it), whom one must not permit to hear it, 

72. him may Asur, Sin, Shamash, Ramman and Ishtar, 
Bel, Nebo, Nergal, Ishtar of Nineveh^ 

T2,- Ishtar of Arbela, Ishtar of Bit-kitmurri, 

74. the gods of heaven and earth and the gods of 
Assyria, all of them, 

75. curse him with a curse without deliverance and 
with trouble ; and as long as he lives may they have no 
mercy upon him. 

76. His name and his seed from the land may they 
cause to depart and may they place his flesh in the 
mouth of dogs. 

open light holes, windows. See Meissner, ibid. p. 26; from bar dm, 
shine, shed light, birru = any aperture through which light enters, 
here the aperture in the door of a sepulchre. 
' Root mi, ii' Prm. 


50 Ritual o/Bel-Marduk 

This Assur tablet is only a commentary on the ritual 
in which the death and resurrection of Bel was com- 
memorated. The ritual itself has not been recovered. 
It is not clear that the ceremony, which obviously 
accompanied the New Year's festival of Nisan, supposes 
the annual death and resurrection of Bel : the Tammuz 
ceremonies are based upon the annual descent of Tammuz 
into the lower world, and his annual resurrection with 
the spring vegetation. The text leaves us to conjecture 
upon this point, but the Bel myth is obviously borrowed 
from the older and more widely practised cult of 
Tammuz, and it is extremely probable that this mystic 
ritual of Bel is only a local transformation of the 
Tammuz cult. Not satisfied with making their city-god 
Marduk the hero of the Epic of Creation instead of the 
older Sumerian Ninurta, the priests of Babylon, envious 
of the most powerful and attractive cult of Sumerian and 
Accadian religion, transformed Tammuz into Marduk. 
The result is that the ritual of death and resurrection 
is brought into intimate relation with the New Year's 
festival at Babylon, and consequently with the Epic 
of Creation. The mystic ritual of Bel's death, descent 
into hell, and resurrection, when transferred to Assyria, 
naturally represented the god Asur as Bel. Of its 
original home in Babylon, the myth of Bel's tomb at 
Babylon and the numerous references to Beltis of 
Babylon in the ritual admit no doubt. The extraordinary 
grammatical comments upon the name of Esabad, 
temple of the mother-goddess Gula, in Babylon, in 
which the myth of Bel's tomb is introduced, adds sub- 
stantial evidence.* 

The religious ceremonies which arose out of the new 
cult of Marduk-Bel were not recognized in the older 

' See note on 1. 63 of the Assur tablet. 


Nezv Texts from Nineveh 5 1 

cities of Babylonia, but they obtained wide acceptance 
in Assyria. The small fragments Rm. 275 and K. 9138 
from Nineveh prove that the mystic ritual of Bel was 
also practised there. 

Like the Assur tablet, they are written in the colloquial 
dialect of Assyria, best known from the large collection 
of letters of the period of the seventh and sixth centuries 
excavated at Nineveh. The cult must have been 
practised from a much earlier period, for the Assur 
tablets must be dated before the tenth century. Both 
are fragments of a very large tablet, at least 10 or 
1 1 inches wide. They are also commentaries upon 
the ritual as practised at Nineveh, and appear to have 
contained more details and explanations of the mysteries ; 
the order of events is also slightly different. They 
preserve but few lines, and the new information is slight ; 
nevertheless they afford evidence of the great influence 
of the cult in Assyria, a point of special importance for 
its transmission to Syria and Judea. The texts are 
published at the end of this volume ; the transcriptions 
and restorations from the Assur tablet (in brackets) 
follow here. 

Rm. 275. Obverse. 

(i) sa subat ''"BeH>) (3) 

kt (?) i-za su-ii-ni su-ii (3) 

-su-u-ni su-ii a-te su (4) [e-nu-ma 

e-lis sa da-bi-ib-u-ni ina pan ''"Bel ina """"JNisanni i-za-] 

mu-ru-u-su-ni ina eli sa sa-bit-u-ni su-u (5) \tirii- 

gallu su-tu i-da-bu-ub ma-a dam-ka-a-te sa] ''"As-sur 
si-na e-ta-pa-as ina eli pi-// (?) ''"As-sur sa 

(6) [ sa sami-e i-da-gal-u-ni ana] "^"A-nim 

'■'"Sin ''"Samas ''"Ramman tu-sa-al-li (?) 

(7) [ ameln OT//-]pa-si-[ir] a 

^'"En-ki ? ? 

D 2 

52 New Texts from Nineveh 


(i) (2) sa li-hap-pa-tu-ii-su-ni su-u 

(3) [li-is-mu sa ina '^''''-Nisanni ina pan '''"Bel 

u] ma-ha-za-ni gab-bu i-kal-[la-du-ni] (4) [ki-i '^"As-sur 
^'"Nin-urta ina eli ka-sa-di sa] "'"Zi-i ''"Ki-in-gu ''"A-sak- 
ku [is-pur-u-ni '^''Nin-urta] (5) [ina pan '^"As-sur ik-ti-bi 
ma-]a '^"Zu-ii ''"Ki-in-gu '^"A-sak-ku [kas-du '^"As-sur] 
(6) [a-na ''"Ntisku ik-ti-bi ma-a a-lik a-na ilani gab-bu] 
pa-si-ir u-pa-[as]-sa-ar-su-nu su-nu ina eli ih-[du-u-ma] 
(7) ? ma ? ku ha-ri-ib-su ? ? «/(?)-/««(?). 

K. 9138. 

(2) [ a-na] ''"A-nim 

"■"Sin (3) si-ip-tu (4) 

eli vii-e-ti (5) sa a-ki-im- 

su (6) [ ^c, A-pa-\i-rtl-'ii-ni'^ pa-ha-a- 

...... (7) [ u-ie-]s7({?)-t{-nz iSaiamiJ) ti-Sa- 

? . . (8) 'a-du-7i-ni sa ki-i (9) 

ni-bi-it ib-hi-u ^ (10) \enuma eliS 

sa dabibiini ina pan ''"Bei] ina '"'"• Nisanni i-za-am-mu- 

ru-u-su-[ni ina eli sa sa-bit-u-ni su-u ^ ] (11) \uru- 

gallil su-tu idabub ma-a] dam-ka-a-ti ia '^"AMur^ \li-7ia 

e-ta-pa-ai ina elipi-li{}) ^'"Ai-hcr sa ] (12) [ 

.?a satnS idagaluni a-^na '^"AS-hir ''"A-nim ''"Sin [''"Samas 

''"Ramman tu-sa-al-li^ ] (13) [ ^a 

kakknru idagaluni ina eli Sa iilu libbi hursan] 

il-lak-n-ni ? -ma ? anielu mu-pa-si-\_ru ^ ] (14) \Ja 

itti ""Bel ana bit akiti la n-sii-21-ni \ka-bu-um 

[ ] (15) ^«- 

' Cf. Rm. 275, Obv. 7 and Rev. 6, and KAR. 143, 60. 

'^ ' The wailing: which they uttered.' 

» Cf. KAR. 143, 34, and Rin. 275, Obv. 4. 

« Cf. KAR. 143, 36. 

» Here the te.xt corresponds to Rm. 275, Obv. 6, and KAR. 143, 37. 

' This line corresponds to KAR. 143, 38 f. 

Reconstruction of the Ritual 53 

A reconstruction of the principal acts in this ritual 
may be made from the commentary, but it is perforce 
scanty and deficient by the very nature of our sources. 
The priests naturally choose only the salient features of 
the ritual for their explanations, and the acts whose 
meanings are explained are not chosen in the actual 
order of their occurrence. That is evident from the 
small fragment given above. Taking the large Assur 
text as a basis of the sequence of the acts of the ritual, 
the following analysis may be made, but it only provides 
a defective substitute for the real ritual, which will 
undoubtedly be recovered in due time. 

(i) Bel is imprisoned in the lower world and the 
celebrants seek to bring him forth. A celebrant rides 
in haste to some kind of sepulchre (?). That means 
Nebo, who hastens to the lower world to comfort Bel, 
held captive in the lower world. 1-8. 

(2) Celebrants hasten in the streets crying, ' Where is 
Bel ? ' and a priestess prays to the moon-god and the 
sun-god to restore Bel to life. She goes to a gate, which 
represents Bel's sepulchre. She probably represents 
Bel's wife or his mother. 9-1 1. 

(3) Watchmen stand at the gate of Bel's temple, who 
represent the guardsmen of Bel's sepulchre. 12. 

(4) Celebrants lament, because Bel was bound and 
slain, and because he descended into hell. 13-14- 

(5) A celebrant (?) is clothed with . . . (?), which repre- 
sents Bel's wounds, by which he died ; they are coloured 
with his blood, i 5. 

(6) A goddess (Bel's consort ?) descends to hell to be 
with him; some deity (Nebo? Bel's son?) refuses to 
descend to Bel, for Assur (= Bel) has declared that he 
should not be wounded, but he stands guard over Bel's 
prison. 16-19. 

(7) A head or effigy of a head is fastened to the door 

54 Reconstruction of the Ritual 

of the temple of Beltis, Bel's consort. This means the 
malefactor who was slain with Be], and whose head was 
hung on the neck of the statue of Beltis. 20-1. 

(8) Nebo returns to Barsippa, which means that, after 
the slaying of Bel, tumult and strife arose in the 
city. 22-3. 

(9) Nebo comes again to Babylon to do homage to 
the dead Bel and to behold the slain malefactor, who 
is symbolized by a swine. The malefactor has gone to 
the lower world with Bel. 24-6. 

(10) Celebrants go before Nebo; they symbolize the 
people who weep for Bel. 27. 

(11) A magi goes wailing before Beltis, who descends 
to hell seeking Bel. The magi brings Bel's garments 
to Ishtar of Erech. These symbolize Bel's garments 
which were taken from him after his death. Beltis of 
Erech or Ishtar is here brought into the ritual from the 
parallel cult of Tammuz, in which Ishtar, mother of 
Tammuz, descends to the house of the dead seeking 
Tammuz. 28-30. 

(12) Treasures are taken from Bel's temple. This 
means that as his body was denuded of clothing, so also 
even his chapel was denuded of its adornment. 31. 

(13) Bel's ieritu cloth appears in the ritual; this 
means the cloth in which he was wrapped in the sepul- 
chre (? ?). 32. 

(14) Milk before Ishtar of Nineveh is placed (?), which 
symbolizes his nursing by the mother goddess. 33. 

(15) The Epic of Creation is sung before Bel, prayers 
are said, and the celebrant cries, ' What was Bel's 
sin ? ' This describes Bel's unjust suffering and death. 

(16) A celebrant looks to heaven in prayer. This 
symbolizes Bel in the lower world, who implores the gods 
of heaven for life. The Ninevite text, however, explains 

Reconstriidton of the Ritual 55 

the act as symbolical of the mother goddess, who prays 
to the heaven-gods for Bel's resurrection. 34-7. 

(17) A celebrant looks toward the lower world in 
prayer. This means that Bel, who has been laid in a 
sepulchre (.^) will rise from the house of death. 38. 

(18) Some deity (?) refuses to go with Bel to the house 
of sacrifice at the New Year's festival of Nisan, which 
means that Bel bears the . . . ? of the malefactor, who 
was bound and sits with him in the lower world. 39. 

(19) Also Beltis, Bel's consort, goes not with him to 
the house of sacrifice at the New Year's festival, and 
celebrants pray before Beltis, asking her to guard the 
temple during Bel's imprisonment. This means that 
Bel's wife rules the temple until his release. 40-1. 

(20) Beltis puts on garments of mourning. This 
means that she cared for the wounded body of Bel. 


(21) On the eighth day of the New Year's festival 
a pig is slaughtered ; this symbolizes the malefactor 
concerning whom they question Beltis, asking who was 
this malefactor slain with Bel. 44-6. 

(22) Certain celebrants come. They seem to symbolize 
certain attendants i^.) of Bel who, when he was bound 
and wounded, [came to comfort him ? ?]. 47- 

(23) The use of water in the ritual is now mentioned, 
the water is stirred up, made muddy, and poured away ; 
the symbolic meaning cannot be detected, but the act 
refers to some phase of Bel's wounding and death. 

(24) The ieritu garment (in which Bel was wrapped .-*) 
again appears in the ritual in connexion with the water 
used in the ritual ; these are said to symbolize Bel's 
suffering. The ritual introduces hymns on the divine 
origin qf water. 53-5. 

56 Reconstnictwn of the Ritual 

(25) The next act is obscure and refers to Bel In the 
sepulchre (?). 56. 

(26) Celebrants run a race in the streets in frenzy. 
Here the ritual symbolizes a part of the myth of creation, 
having no relation at all to the death and resurrection of 
Bel. The race symbolizes Ninurta ( = Bel of the Semitic 
Babylonian myth), sent to conquer the dragons, who 
returns to tell the gods of his victory, and the messenger 
who hastened to the gods with the glad tidings. 57-60. 

(27) Psalmists participate in the race, carrying Bel's 
relics plundered (from the temple ?) when he was slain. 
This is said to symbolize how the gods his fathers 
[permitted him to be bound and wounded ?]. 61-2. 

(28) The messenger-god Nusku hastens past Esabad, 
temple of Gula. This means that the mother-goddess 
Gula sent Nusku [to tell the gods of Bel's death ? }\ 63. 

(29) Bel's clothing and sandals are brought to Beltis 
his consort. This means that Nusku (i*) brought them 
to her, so that he cannot escape from the lower world. 


(30) A chariot and horses are sent out recklessly to 
the house of sacrifice, speeding headlong, without a 
driver. This signifies Bel's disappearance. 66. 

(31) A goddess goes out of the city weeping, which 
symbolizes the women who wept at Bel's wounding. 67. 

(32) The ritual now introduces a door slit with an 
aperture to let in the light. This symbolizes the door 
of Bel's sepulchre, where the gods imprisoned him. But 
the gods at last break down the door, battle (with the 
gods of the lower world ?) and bring Bel back to life 
and the upper world. 

The colophon at the end of this tablet says that the 
explanations of the mystic meanings of these acts in the 
ritual are not to be read by those not lawfully initiated 
into the priesthood of this cult. The incongruous details 

Origin of the Sakaia 57 

of the commentary render both translation and exegesis 
singularly difficult and hazardous. It is true that the text 
does not expressly refer to Bel's death, but only to his 
binding, wounding, and confinement, and to his sepulchre. 
1 hat is, of course, attributable to religious timidity. 

Lines 57-60 seem to have some connexion with the 
Persian festival called to. aaKccia, SaKaia 77 SkvOckt) iopr-q, 
' Sakaia the Scythian festival ' (Hesychius). According 
to Strabo xi* the Sakai, a Scythian tribe, built a temple 
to Anaitis and the Persian deities Omanus and Onadatus, 
and celebrated yearly the sacred festival to. SaKaia. But 
Strabo adds another explanation for the origin of the 
Sakaia in Persia. Cyrus, having made an expedition 
against the Sakai, and being defeated, conceived a wily 
plan to destroy them. Simulating defeat, he fled, 
leaving his camp full of provisions and wines. The 
Sakai pursued him, captured the camp, and gorged them- 
selves with food and drink. Cyrus quickly returned, 
fell upon the Sakai, stupified and drunk with orgy, and 
utterly destroyed them. Cyrus, attributing the victory to 
the intervention of his national deity, instituted a yearly 
feast called Sakaia in memory of this day. ' Wherever 
there is a temple of this (Persian) goddess, there is 
instituted the bacchic festival of the Sakai (i? Twr SaKieov 
eo/or?;), when men and women drink day and night in Scythian 
custom, toying with each other in lascivity.' Athenaeus, 
Dipiiosopliistae 639 c. quoting Berossus, says that in the 
month Acooj (Macedonian), corresponding to the Attic 
month ^orjSpoixidiv (September), or feast of the running, 
in memory of Theseus and his expedition against the 
Amazons, was celebrated the festival Sakaia, at Babylon, 
on the sixteenth day. At this time the masters were 
ordered about by slaves, and one of them governed the 
house, and was clothed like a king. This bogus slave- 
master was called ^wydprjs, Soganes, which Zimmern 

58 Origin of the Sakaia 

identified with the Sumerian loan-word sukallu, mes- 
senger, viceroy. But Dion Chrysostomus, De Regno, 
iv 67, says that the 17 tcoj' Sukwv ioprrj, or festival of the 
Sakai,' was a Persian institution. At this time they 
choose a prisoner, condemned to death, and set him on 
the king's throne, clothing him as a king, and permitting 
him to ride the land, drink and misconduct himself with 
the king's wives. None might prevent him, but afterward 
they take him away, scourge and hang him. 

There is much in the combined rituals of the New 
Year's festival and the death of Bel to suggest that the 
Persian festival may be derived from Babylon. Berossus, 
undoubtedly the best of our Greek sources, assigns it 
primarily to Babylon, but he places it in the autumn, and 
apparently connects it with the Attic festival of the 
running as symbolic of Theseus's victory over the 
Amazons. The running in the streets of Babylon, and 
at Assur and Nineveh, was a symbol of Ninurta-Bel's 
victory over the dragons of Chaos. Now in the ritual 
of the New Year's festival of Nisan, on the fifth day, 
the king went to Bel's chapel, where the high priest took 
from him his royal insignia, pulled his ears, and smote 
his cheek.- Here, at any rate, is the sure source of the 
temporary abdication and humiliation of the king, as 
described by Dion Chrysostomus in his account of the 
Persian Sakaia. 

In fact, on the basis of these notices in the Babylonian 
sources and with the aid of the Greek accounts of the 
Sakaia, it seems probable that a minor aspect of the 
Nisan festival at Babylon consisted in a putting to death 
of a bogus king who was a condemned malefactor, and 
in a frenzied race in the streets ; both of these acts seem 

' ^ ar. o-aKKQiv. A var. on the Athenaeus passage iop-njv SaKai'a has 
croKfav, i. e. a form ioprrj craKta is presupposed.  

'' See above, p. 26. 

Tlic Myth and the Gospels 59 

to have been erroneously combined into one festival and 
imported into Persia. But the Persians claim to have 
derived it from the Scythian tribe Sakai. But numerous 
variants in Greek texts ^ as sakkat, saka, sakea, leave the 
impression that they have confused some Babylonian 
word like sakkic with the name of the tribe Sakai. The 
well-known word sakku means a dumb or stupid person, 
but its application to a bogus king and malefactor in this 
festival has not been found. 

In the discussion of this mysterious ritual of the 
wounding and imprisonment of Bel, I have written in 
the conviction that the Assyriologist should confine 
himself strictly to his sources. His labour must be 
bestowed primarily upon a correct edition and interpreta- 
tion of the text. The place of this ritual in the intricate 
system of Babylonian religion is within his province, and 
he is bound to undertake to explain its implications in 
that aspect. But writing now as an Assyriologist, with 
severe conception of his restrictions, the author refrains 
from entering into any discussion of the New Testament. 
In fact, he is not quite convinced that these sources, as 
presently known, warrant a discussion of these problems 
which at first thought seem to demand explanation. So 
many apparent analogies in the history of religion have 
proven themselves fallacious, and so many scholars have 
broken their strength upon the impregnable rock of truth, 
that the maxim nc sutor supra C7-cpidam is particularly 
applicable here. The wider application of these texts 
is the affair of theologians. The above edition of the 
Bel ritual aims at giving a dependable source.^ 

' See Stephanus. Thesaurus Linguae Graecae under SaKat'a, Saxai. 

^ There is one striking parallel between these Bel's mysteries and the 
ritual of the Christian Church in Holy Week. In the litual of the New 
Year (see pp. 23 and 25) the Crown of Ann and the Throne of Enlil 
are veiled, and in the mourning for the dead Bel (p. 54, § 12) the 
ornaments of Bel's temple are removed. 


List of Texts 

In making use of this edition, the very large number 
of tablets cited necessitates a key to their place of publica- 
tion. Following the system introduced by King, and 
followed by Deimel in his edition of a composite text 
as known to him in 1912,^ I have composed a table of 
the tablets, and one for the sources of the text. 


Place of Publication. 


CT. 13, 6. 


King, Great, ii 59-60 


„ ii 60-2. 


» i 159- 


CT. 13, 7-9. 

3449 a 

CT. 13, 23. 


CT. 13, 16-19. 


CT. 13, 22. 


CT. 13, 3- 


King, Creal. ii 54-5. 


,. i 185- 


CT. 13,5. 


CT. 13, I. 

5420 <r . 

CT. 13, 21. 


CT. 13, 9. 


King, Creai. i 183. 


„ ii 60. 


„ i 165- 


CT. 13, 26-7. 


CT. 13, 12. 


CT. 13, 23. 


CT. 13, 12. 


CT. 13, 28. 


King, Creal. i 187. 


„ i 192. 

1 2000 3 

CT. 13, 24. 


King, Great, i 163. 


„ i 166. 


„ i 164. 


„ i 190. 

' ' Enuma elis ', stve Epos Babyhnkum de Creatione Mundi, by 
P. Antonil's Deijiel, S.I., Rome, 1912. 


List of Texts 



Place of Publication. 

366 King, Creat. ii 56-8. 

395 .. ,.. ii 62. 

982 CT. 13, 31. 

2. 83 CT. 13, 19. 

Sm. Place of Publication. 

II King, Cr^aA ii 51-3. 

1416 .. „ ii 55- 

BM. Place of Publication. 

79-7-8, 178 .... CT. 13, 6. 

79-7-8, 251 

CT. 13, 20. 

81-7-27, 80 

CT. 13, 2. 

82-3-23, 151 

King, Creat. ii 54. 

82-9-18, 5448 

„ ii 34- 

82-9-18, 6879 

„ ii 12-13. 

82-9-18, 6950 

„ ii 29. 

351.34 • 

„ ii 7- 

35506 . 

„ ii 46-8. 

36688 . 

„ ii 7- 

36726 . 

„ ii 8. 

38396 . 

CT. 13, 4. 

40559 • 

King, Creaf. ii 14-21. 

42285 . 

„ ii 30-2. 

45528 . 

„ ii 1-6. 

46803 . 

„ ii 9-1 1. 

54228 . 

„  ,, ii 63. 

61429 . 

„ ii 25-8. 

91139 . 

„ ii 38-45. 

92629 . 

.. ii 35-6. 

92632 . 

„ ii 22-4. 

93015 • 

CT. 13, 1+3. 

93016 . 

CT. 13, 14-15. 

93017 • 

CT. 13, lo-ii. 

98909 . 

CT. 34, 18. 

VAT. Place of Publication. 

2553 Unpublished. 

9668 KAR. iii 118. 

9676 „ iii 164. 

9677 . 

„ iii 117. 


References to Sources 


Place of Publication. 


KAR. i 5. 


„ iii 162. 






KAR. iii 163. 



„ iii 173. 



KAR. iii 162. 




nt— BL. PI 

. IX. 






3938 = Lines 33-42+147-62. 
4488 = 50-62. 
5419^ = 1-16. 

7871 = 33-47- 
982 = 60-101. 

31-7-27, 80 = 31-56+ 137-61. 
82-9-18, 6879 = 112-36. 
35134= 11-21. 
36688 = 38-44. 
36726 = 28-33. 
45528 = 1-48 + 130-61. 
46803 = 46-67 + 104-21. 
93015 = 1-16+ 143-61. 
98909 = 45-53 + 159-61. 
VAT. 9668 = 2-25 + 132-58. 

9677 = 53-78 + 79-103- 

9873 = 84-111. 
10152 = 1-18 + 52-80+ 140-9. 
10346= 34-51 + 107-1 16. 
10592 + 12951 in break on 10152, Obv. IL 
10652 = 16-26 + 71-80. 
10997 = 50-68. 

References to Sources 


K. 292 = Lines 120-9. 
4832 = 32-58 + 93-127. 
BM. 79-7-8, 178 = 69-85. 

38396 = 11-29 + 95-117. 
4°559 = 1-40+ io°-29- 
92632 = 14-29+ 103-17- 
98909 = 1-6. 
VAT. 2553 = 5-23 + 33-48 + 98-1 29. 
9971 = 33-48 + 88-102. 
10585 = 105 ff. 


K. 3473 = Lines 1-85 + 86-138. 
6650 = 38-55 + 96-113. 

8524= 75-86- 
BM. 82-9-18, 1403 = 5-15 + 52-61 + 62-76+ 124-8. 

82-9-18, 5448 = 64-72. 

82-9-18, 6950= 19-26+77-84. 

42285 = 46-68 + 69-87. 

93017 = 47-77 + 78-105- 
VAT. 10663=1-13 + 127-38. 


K. 3437 = Lines 36-83 + 84-119. 
5420 f= 74-92 + 93-119- 
Rm. 2, 83 = 117-29. 
BM. 79-7-8, 251 = 35-49+103-7- 
93016 = 1-44 + 116-46. 
93051 = 42-54 + 85-94. 
VAT. 10579 = 53 ff- 

10898 = 39-54 + 105-21- 


K. 3567 = Lines 1-26. 
8526 = 1-18. 

11641 = 14-22 + (l28)-(l40). 

13774 = 6-19- 

64 References to Sources 


K. 3449<z = 53^-72- 
I2000 b = 16—22. 
BM. 92629=1-20 + 145. 
VAT. 9676 = entire tablet. 


K. 2854 = Lines 1-18. 
8519= 74-88. 
8522 = 15-45+106-38- 
9267 = 40-7 + 111-18 + 124-38. 

12830 = 89-95. 

13337 = 78-83. 
13761 =63-78. 
35506= 14-36 + 106-42. 
9H39 = 3-40+ 106-42. 




1. e-nu-ma e-lis ^ la na-bu-u sa-ma-mu ^ 

2. sap-lis ^ am-ma-tum su-ma ^ la zak-rat ^ 

3. Apsfl-ma * res-tu-u za-ru-su-un 

4. Mu-um-mu " Ti-amat mu ''-al-li-da-at gim-ri-su-un 

5. me *-su-nu ' is-te-ni§ i-hi-ku-ma* 

6. gi-pa-ra^ la ki-is-su-ra '" su-sa-a" la se-'a^^ 

7. e-nu-ma ilani la su-pu-u ma-na-ma 

8. su-ma " la zuk ^^-ku-ru si-ma-tu la si-mu " 

9. ib-ba-nu-u-ma '* ilani ki-rib-su-un ^' 

* 45528, li-il; KAR. 162, mt. 

^ 45528, h-is; 93015, mu; KAR. 162, zak-ru. Here begins KAR. 

' For am-ma-tu, KAR. 162 has ai-tia-tu, dwellings, see 1. 79 below. 
The word avunatu has the meaning ' forearm ', and developed the 
meaning ' door sill, threshold ', precisely as Heb. HES ' forearm ', em- 
ployed there in the sense ' cubit ', obtained also the meaning ' door 
sill ', Is. 6, 4. The definition ' door sill ' follows from the Sumerian 
equivalent d-sug ■= idi ush', 'arm of the foundation', V R. 20 a 18. 
amvialu then obtained the meaning ' home '. See also Holma, Korper- 
teile, 1 15-16. 

* 93015, apsti-u; KAR. 162, apsu-um-ma. The Commentary, CT. 
13, 32, begins here. 

° According to Sumerian thought, water is the first creative principle, 
and through its indwelling creative reason (mummu) all things proceed. 
Apsil, a loan-word from Sumerian ab-zu, 'house of wisdom', designates 
the ocean of fresh water beneath the earth from which springs, fountains, 
and wells derived their supplies. See the writer's The Babylonian 
Concrplion 0/ the Legos, JRAS. 1918, 433-49. ApsH is employed 
indifferently for the ocean beneath the earth and for the personification 
of the ocean, the deity ApsQ (never with determinative for god), and 
in Daraascius's account of Babylonian cosmogony Apsfl and Tiamat 


1. When on high the heavens were not named, 

2. And beneath a home ^ bore no name, 

3. And Apsil ^ primaeval, their engenderer, 

4. And the ' Form ', Tiamat, the bearer of all of them, 

5. There mingled their waters together ; 

6. Dark chambers were not constructed, and marsh- 
lands were not seen ; 

7. When none of the gods had been brought into 

8. And they were not named, and fates were not fixed, 

9. Then were created the gods in the midst thereof; 

are written 'A-Traa-wv and Tau^iy. See Cory, Ancient Fragments, 

* Mummu, ' Word ', the Logos of Babylonian thought, is the creative 
principle and messenger of ApsQ. See 11. 30-1. 

' 93015, mu-um-via-al-li-da-at\ KAR. 162, -a/ at end. 

* 45528, mu-ti; 93015, iu-un; KAR. 162, i-hi-ik-kii-ma\ K. 5419, c, 

^ gi-pdr-ra, 93015; [ \ru, KAR. 162. Loan-word from ^;^- 
barra, ' dark chamber '. It is invariably employed of sacred buildings, 
particularly of the rooms in the interior of the stages of towers. The 
ordinary writing is gig-pdr, Br. 8934, but gig-par occurs, Legrain, 
Temps des Rois d'Ur, 337, 9; Langdon, Archives of Drehem, 49, 10; 
e'-ge-par was a cloister for nuns at Erech, Clay, Miscellaneous Inscrip- 
tions, no. 45 R. 4. See for further discussion, Langdon, BL. 109 ; 
Landsberger, Der kuUische Kalender, 74, n. 3. 

'" 93015, ku-zii-ru, a better reading; KAR. 118 and 162, -ru. 

" su-sa-a, 93015. 

" le-'e-u, KAR. 118, Obv. 5; h-'-i, KAR. 162. 

'' su-um, 93015; zu-uk, ibid.; KAR. ii8,1!fi-z-»«<. 

" 93°i5 and 45528 omit ma; KAR. 118 omits u. 

^^ ' In their midst', i.e. in the Apsu and Tamtu, fresh- and salt-water 

E 2 

68 Tablet I 

10. ''"Lah-mu^ '^'"'La-ha-mu us-ta-pu-u su-mi iz-zak-ru - 

11. a-di * ir-bu-u i-si-hu ' 

12. An-sar^ "''"'Ki-sar ib-ba-nu-u " e-li ®-su-nu at-ru 

1 3. ur-ri-ku * ume us '-si-pu sanati 

14. '^"A-nu" a-pil-su-nu sa-ni-nu '^ abe-su 

15. An-sar "'"A-num '^ bu-uk-ra-su u-mas-si-il ^'^ 

' u, 'and', is inserted by 93015; 45528. 

" Text from KAR. 162 ; KAR. 118 has lu-ta-pu-u lu-nti iz-zak-ru. 

' Lahmu and Lahamu are the first deities descended from the Chaos. 
Damascius reports the tradition correctly, but his te.xt (see Cory, op. cit. 
318) has been corrupted as Aa;^^!' (cat t^ai(pv for Aa;^r/i' koX Aa;^^ ; 
Lahe is the male and Lahha the female, and for these original (?) forms 
see Book III 125. For the formation cf. Almu and Alamu, father- 
mother names of Nergal, IV R. 21045; ^ ^- ^^ '"25 f.; AJSL. 33, 
188, 19-20. Lahmu and Lahamu have a double role in Babylonian 
mythology. On the one hand they are the first of the gods of order 
and ancestors of these gods, Book III 68, and they counsel their children 
against Tiamat, III 125. They, therefore, become father-mother names 
of Anu, CT. 24, I, 15; 20, 9. On the other hand Lahama, Lahha, is 
a dragon of Chaos and belongs to the monsters of Tiamat, Book I 137 ; 
II 27; III 31, 89. Her fifty servants seize Innini at the command 
of Anu, Poeme du Paradis, 235, 28. Lahha or Lahamu also became 
a demon, and is described as a sea-serpent of Ea, CT. 17, 42, 14-24 ; 
in another form he is a bird demon of a deity whose name is broken 
away, CT. 17, 43, 49-61 ; as demon of the water-god Lahmu is part 
bird with lion feet and is named ipperu, 'Calamity', CT. 17, 43, 64- 
44, 74. He is also a demon of Gula, half man and half dog, CT. 17, 
44, 83-90. But Lahmu is also a protecting genius, and images of him 
adorn the gates of buildings, VAB. iv 222, 16 ; Messerschmidt, KTA. 
75, 24 ; BA. iii 266, 9. He is represented, on a gate, by Agu-kak-rime, 
among the monsters of Tiamat, V R. 33, IV 50. The latter reference 
from the period immediately following the First Babylonian Dynasty 
proves that the Epic of Creation is at least as early as the age of 
Hammurabi. A hymn to Marduk associates the Lahmus, a general 

Creation of the gods 69 

10. Lahmu and Lahamu ^ were brought into being 
and they were named. 

1 1. For ages they grew up and became lofty. 

1 2. Ansar and Kisar were created more excellent than 

13. The days lengthened themselves and the years 

14. Anu their son, the rival of his fathers, 

15. Ansar made Anu his first-born equal (to him- 

name for the monsters of Tiamat, with Ea and Damkina, BA. v 310, 37. 
■An obscure reference to Lahama of the sea in PBS. x 113, 5. This 
first pair of deities waver between the old order of Chaos and the new 
order of the gods. In 1. 78, below, they are the first of the gods, and 
inhabit the ocean. When the Assj-rian scribes substituted Asur for 
Marduk in this epic they replaced Ea, father of Ma.rduk, by Lahmu, 
father of Ahir. See Book I 78, 83, 84. This substitution followed 
logically enough, for the Assyrian god Ahir had been identified with 

' KAR. 118, a-di-ma; 93015, a-di-i. adz, pi. of adii. In any case 
adu, to which Deliizsch assigned the meaning 'time', H. W., 24, does 
occur in that sense; d-dii-a-bi =^ add-sunu, 'their fixed periods', said 
of the sun and moon, RA. 11, 145, 28, and Thureau-Dangin's note, 
p. 156. A derivation from tiadil, fix, ordain, is possible, and perhaps 
more probable, in which case there is no connexion with Hebrew 15? 

^ Here begins 35134, King, Great., ii PI. 7. 

^ 35134; 45528 insert u, 'and'; 45528 ib-ba-nu-ma ; KAR. iiS, 
3[U({ for eli. 

' This line is either omitted on 93015 or this text carried 11. 11 and 
1 2 as one. 

* u-ur-ri-hi, u-ur-ri-ku, 45528; 35134; ti-ri-ki, 93015. 

' «-«)■-, 45528. 

'" On the use of the piel to express condition of the subject see 
Brockelmann, Vergkichende Grammatik, i 509. 

" iiiim, 93015; 45528; 35134; mt-um,KKR. ii8; niii, KAR. 118. 

'" nu-ttm, KAR. 118; si-il-ma, KAR. 162. 

70 Tablet I 

1 6. u "'"A-num 1 tam-si-la-su u-lid '^"Nu-dim-mud ^ 

1 7. "^"Nu-dim-mud sa abe-su sa-lit-su-nu su-u * 

18. pal-ku 5 uz-nu ^ ha-sis e-mu-kan pu-ug-gu-uP 

19. gu-us-sur ma-a-di-is * a-na a-lid abi-su An-sar 

20. la i-si sa-ni-na ' i-na ilani at-hi-e-su ^ 

21. in-nin-du-ma'*"at-hu-u ilani ^^ 

22. e-su-ii '^ Ti-amat u (?) na-sir-su-nu is-tap-pu " 

23. da-al-hu-nim-ma sa Ti-amat kar-as-sa '* 

24. i-na su-'-a-ru ^^ ki-rib an-duru-na 

25. la na-si-ir Apsu-ii ''' ri-gim-su-un 

26. u Ti-amat [su-]ka-am-mu-[ma-at] su-nu '^ 

27. im-tar-sa-am-ma ip-se-ta-su-un [e-li-sa]" 

28. la ta-bat al-kat-su-nu su-nu-ti i-ta-til-la ^^ 

' nii-um, KAR. 118; 35134. 

' Title of Ea, as he who created man from clay. The name 
means ?m ■=■ amehi, dim = biimidnu, mud — ianu, i. e. ban bunnani ameli, 
' fashioner of the form of man '. A variant is Na-dim-mud ■= Ea (ban) 
kalama, CT. 25, 48, 17, and cf. Ea as mumniu ban kalama, BA. ii 261, 5> 
and ''^^'■Na-mu-ud-mu-ud =: ilu musabni ameli, CT. 25, 33, 18. See 
Poeme du Paradis, 38. 

' Here begins KAR. 163. 

' KAR. 162, su-ma; KAR. 163 omits su-u. 

^ ka, KAR. 118; 45528. " KAR. 118, 17, ni. 

' KAR. 162; 163; pu-un-gul. « ma-a-dii, KAR. 118. 

' 7iin, KAR. 118 ; KAR. 163, abe-hi, ' his fathers'. 

'" 35i34> du-ti; ildnu {nu), KAR. 163. 

" Niph'al of emedu) cf. Code of Hammurabi, § 176, 80, in-ne-im-du, 
where it has the sense of ' to lie together ', to unite. 

'^ M« conceals two roots in Assyrian ; {a) esu, to do evil against, 
destroy, rebel against, Arabic "jls ; (b) to be dark, confused, Arabic ^J^i. 
Both meanings are employed in translating the Sumerian SUH. The 
meaning ' destroy ' is documented in the Commentary, King, Creal. 
ii 62, 34, HA-A {^^=. hulluku)-HAB ■=\niuhallik rag-^gi■. esu rag-gi ; 
and in kakku esi2 sa ''"^//. 

" IIP of apii; read us-ta-pu-ul Text from KAR. 163, 7 and 118, 
Obv. 21. The sign at the end of 118, 21 is pu. Luckenbill reads 

Revolt of the gods 7 1 

1 6. And as to Anu he begat Nudimmud his equal.^ 

1 7. Nudimmud, champion of his fathers was he, 

18. Wide eared, the wise, mighty in strength. 

19. He was made exceedingly strong, even more than 
his father Ansar. 

20. He had no rival among the gods, his brothers.^ 

2 1 . They were banded together," the brothers, the gods. 

22. They rebelled against Tiamat, and glorified their 

23. They troubled the thoughts of Tiamat, 

24. With singing in the midst of Anduruna " 

25. Apsil diminished not their clamour, 

26. And Tiamat lapsed into silence at their 

27. Their deeds were obnoxious unto her. 

28. Their way was not good, for they had become 

liiahbu, V of lab-d, ' they overpowered their guards ', but in that case 
sunu has no obvious antecedent ; the same editor reads the doubtful sign 
kisiat, and Ebeling treats it as an erasure, and derives istappu from 
sapdpu. Cf. CT. 15, 5 ii 3 ! 

" ka-ras-sa, KAR. 163, 8. 

^^ su'aru is probably a cognate of siru (TB'), strophe, ballad, both 
from the root -m. See KAR. 158, Rev. II 39; and JRAS. 1921, 
188 n. 7. 

'^ A title oi AralU, Craig, RT. ii 13, 3. This Sumerian term means 
' the abode ', a noun formed from durtin with prefix an. A minor deity 
of the underworld is ^-Aiiduriina, an attendant of Ea (uiukki ^Ed), 
CT. 24, 2, II. For the formation see Sum. Gr., § 150a. The text 
of KAR. 118 is assured by KAR. 163, Obv. 9. 

" The end of this hne on KAR. 163, 10, [apsu-]u, &c. ; apsil 45528. 

" Last sign on KAR. 163, Obv. I. 

" Cf. KAR. 45, 17, sa marisi e-li-ka, and 1. 37, below. Correctly 
read by Ebeling. 

*° The verb is here derived from atdlii, etelu, be manly ; cf. i-te-it-lu, 
KB. vi 292, 17. The root is entered edeltt in the lexicons, but see 1. 96, 

" Here begins 36726, a series of extracts from Book I; King, Creat. 
ii, PI. 8. 

72 Tablet 1 

29. i-nu-su Apsu za-ri ilani ra-be-ii-tim 

30. is-si-ma ''"Mu-um-mu ' suk-kal-la-su i-zak-kar-su 

31. ''"Mu-um-mu - suk-kal-lu ^ mu-tib-ba ka-bft-tl-ia 

32. al-kam-ma si-ri-is ^ Ti-amat^ i ni-lik 

33. il-li-ku-ma ku-ud ■*-mi-is Ti-amat* sak-pu 

34. a-ma-ti im-tal-li-ku as-sum ilani bu-uk-ri-su-un ^ 

35. Ap-[su] pa-a-su i-pu-[sam-]ma izakkar-si 

36. a-na [Ti-amat] el-li-tu-ma i-zak-kar-su ^ 

37. im-ra-as al-kat-su-[nu] e-li-ia 

38. ur-ra la su-up-su-ha-ak ' mu-si la sa-al-la-ku 

39. lu-us-hal-lik-ma al-kat-su-nu lu-sap-pi-ih 

40. ku-ii *-lu lis-sa-kin-ma i * ni-is-lal ni-i-nu ' 

41. Ti-amat an-ni-ta i-na se-me-e-sa " 

42. i-zu-uz '- -ma il-ta-si e-li ^^ har-mi ''^-sa 

43. [mar] '"-si-is ug-gu-gat '^ e-dis-si-sa 

44. li-mut-ta " it-ta-di a-na kar-si-[sa] 

45. mi-na-a ni-i-nu sa ni-ip-pu-sam nu-us-hal-lak '^ 

' So 36726, but 45328 omits ilu. Mummu is an ordinar}' word for 
' form ', which was personified as creative reason, and inherent in the 
first principle, water. Mummu in Babylonian thought was usually 
identified with Ea, the god of the Apsij, or with his son Nabfi. The 
literature on this subject and a study of the theory of the Mummu as 
Logos will be found in The Babylonian Conceptioti of the Logos, JRAS. 
1918, 433-49. There the writer derived this word from emA. to speak, 
and this derivation was sustained by a syllabar which explains mumviu by 
rigmu. See p. 74 n. 3. Mummu or ' word ' then came to mean cosmic 
reason, and as such it was translated into Greek by Xoyos. Th.-Dangin, 
RA. 16, 166 ii 3, suggests that mummu is a loan-word from a Sumerian 
(hypothetical) mumma ■= ummuku, wise. In this epic Mummu is the 
messenger of the primaeval water-god, and he belongs to the monsters 
of Chaos, who were said to have been bound and confined in Arallu 
or chained to the stars. Hence ^^'"^Mu-um = ^^"■Papsukkal (the messenger 
god) in one version of this legend, and he is one of the seven Enlils 
who were subdued, RA. 16, 154. Mummu is t he sea and hom e of 
Tasmet (consort of Nabii), Ebeling, KAk. 122, 9. In the Epic of 
Creation Mummu is certainly not emploj'ed in a philosophical sense, but 
he is simply the messenger of ApsQ. 

Apsii and Tiamat enraged 73 

29. Then Apsu, engenderer of the great gods, 

30. Cried aloud caUing unto Mummu, his messenger : 

31. ' O Mummu, messenger, who rejoicest my mind, 

32. Come, unto Tiamat let us go.' 

^2)' They went and before Tiamat they sat down. 

34. They consulted plans with regard to the gods 
their first-born sons. 

35. Apsil opened his mouth speaking unto her. 

36. Speaking unto Tiamat the clean one : 

2,"]. ' Their way has become grievous unto me. 

38. By day I am rested not, by night I sleep not. 

39. I will destroy them and confound their ways. 

40. Let tranquillity " reign, and let us sleep, even us.' 

41. When Tiamat heard this, 

42. She raged crying out to her husband. 

43. In pain she raged, she alone. 

44. She planned evil for herself: 

45. ' How shall we destroy that which we have made? 

° 45528 omits z/«, and reads suk-kal-li. Here begins 81-7-27, 80; 
CT. 13, 2. 

' CT. 13, 2, Obv. 2, ril; 36726, Ta-d-wa-lu; CT. 13, 2, Obv. 2, 
Hat \Ti-amat\ 

* CT. 13, 2, kud-mis; 36726, Ta-d-iva-ti. 

^ Here begins K. 7871 in King, Creal. i 183, and also VAT. 10346 
(unpublished). K. 3938, CT. 13, 3, Obverse, carries the beginnings of 

11- 33-41- 

' So VAT. 10346. ' CT. 13, 2, ku. 

' So 36688, but CT. 13, 2, and K. 3938 omit li. CT. 13, 2 omits i. 

' For 1. 40 b, the Var. VAT. 10346 has [w«]-M ni-hi-it, ' by night 
let us rest(?)'. The root is uncertain, hardly hdtu, watch, do sentry 
duty. But cf. mi-a-du-du = hditii, ' he that stands sentry by night '. 

^° Hlti from kdlu = sakd/u, be tranquil, ZDMG. 74, 178. 

" VAT. 102^6, se-mi-t-}u. 

" CT. 13, 3, K. 3938, Obv. 9, z!z; K. 7871, 3fUff (or eli, but VAT. 
10346, e-lu\ VAT. 10346, har-me-la. 

" No sign before ynar if one may judge from CT. 13, 2, Obv. 13; 
but King, Great, ii, PI. 3, clearly leaves room for a word here. The sign 
gat is Br. 2701. 

" 36688, ti. " VAl'. 10346, m-hal-lak. 

74 Tablet I 

46. al-kat-su-nu lu sum-ru-sa-ma i ni-[is]-du-ud ta-bis ^ 

47. [i-]pu-ul-ma '^"Mu-um-mu Apsam ^ i-ma-al-lik 

48. [rag-gu] u la ma-gi-ru ^ mi-lik Mu-um-me Mu 

49. [a-]lik li-'-at al-ka-ta e-si-ta* 

50. [iir-]ris lu sup "'-su-hat mu-sis lu sal-la-at " 

5 1 . [is-me-]sum-ma Apsli '' im-me '-ru pa-nu-us-su ^ 

52. [sa] Hm-ni-e-ti ' ik-pu-du a-na ^^ ilani ma-ri-e ^"-su 

53. ''"Mu-um-mu i-te-dir" ki-sad-[su] 

54. us-ba-am-ma bir-ka-a-su u-na-sa-ku ^^ sa-a-su 

55. mim '^-mu-u '^ ik-pu-du pu-uh ^^-ru-us-[sun] 

56. a-na ^* ilani bu-uk-ri-su-nu us-tan-nu-ni 

57. id-mu-nim-ma " ilani i-duPMu 

58. ku-lu is-ba-tu ^^ sa-ku-um-mi-is " us-bu 

59. sn-tilr uz-ni ^* it-pi-sa "" te-li-'-e '' 

60. """E-a ha-sis mi-im-ma-ma ^* i-se-'a me-ki-su-un ^'^ 

' Here begins Th. 1905-4-9, 415 = 98909 in CT. 34, 18. VAT. 
10346, Dug-iL 

^ 98909, ap-sa-a. So perhaps King, ii, PI. 3. Here begins 46803 = 
King, ii, PI. 9. 

' 46803, ra. King, ii, PI. 3, mi for me, but VAT. 10346, mu-u-um- 
me-su, which is important for the derivation, indicating a lost weak, 
consonant before urn, and proving the word to be Semitic. 

' 98909, i-st-la. The interpretation is doubtful, and li-'-at is not 
certain. For esita, VAT. 10346 has e-pi-ta. 46803, e-si-\ta\. 

' VAT. 10997, su-up. 

^ VAT. 10346, ni-hiit; see 1. 40. 

' VAT. 10997, ap-su-u; 46803, mi. 

' Here begins K. 4488; King, i 185. 

' Here begin KAR. 162, Obv. II and 117, Obv. I. 

"' K. 4488, an; 98909 and K. 4488, mare. 

" K. 4488, di-ir. For ederu, cling to, enclose, see JRAS. 1921, 
178, 19. 

'° KAR. 117, u-na-as-sak ; K. 4488, u-na-sak. 


Mummu gives counsel to Apsu 75 

46. Let their way be made troublesome but let us 
travel happily.' 

47. Mummu replied giving counsel to Apsll. 

48. Wicked and not favourable was the advice of his 
' Mummu '. 

49. ' Go, thou art able, even upon a gloomy way (go), 

50. Mayest thou have rest by day and by night 
mayest thou sleep.' 

51. Aps0 hearkened unto him and his countenance 

52. At the injuries which he planned against the gods 
his sons. 

53. The neck of Mummu he embraced. 

54. He lifted him upon his knees as he kissed him. 

55. Whatsoever they planned in their assembly, 

56. Unto the gods their first-born they repeated. 
5 7. The gods wept ^^ as they hastened. 

58. Silence reigned" and the)'' sat whispering. 

59. The exceedingly wise,^" the clever in skill, 

60. Ea, who knoweth all things, perceived their plan.^* 

^^ VAT. 10997, mi-im\ KAR. 162 ii 4, an-nu-u, 'this they planned'. 
King, ii, PI. 9, via pu-uh-ri-su-un ; KAR. 117, 4, ina puhru-us-\sun]. 

" KAR. 162 ii 5, 071 Hani. 

'^ Ibid, ii 6, ii-[mu-nim-ma\, 'they heard and hastened'. King, ii, 
PI. 9, du-ul followed by ku-lu, &c., 1. 58. 

'^ The verb damii = damamu occurs in SBP. 86, 46, where it renders 
Sumerian se-du. 

" VAT. 10997, is-sa-kin; KAR. 117, mes. 

" Literally ' silence they observed '. 

" KAR. 162 ii 8, na; K. 4488, il-pi-su; 46803, te-li-e. 

"" Cf. aiar-hasisi. The reading lu-iUr is obtained by combining 
KAR. 117, Obv. 8 with 162, Obv. II 8. 

',' VAT. 10997, ^^• 

" meku, 'plan', not 'muttering'. It denotes primarily a part of the 
body, the open jaw, gaping mouth, and is a synonym of libbu, hence 
also ' maw ', ' belly ', and by metonymy it also means ' thoughts ', ' plan '. 
See PSBA, 1909, 113; Holma, Korperteile, 158; SAK. 180, note f; 
Delitzsch, H. VV., 407. 

" Here begins Rm. 982, in CT. 13, 31. 

76 Tablet I 

6i. ib-sim-ma iis-rat^ ka-li u-kin-[su] 

62. u-nak-kil-su ^ su-tu-ru ta-a-su el-lum ^ 

63. im-ni *-sum-ma ina* me u-sab-si 

64. sit-tam ir ^-te-hi-su sa-lil tu ''-ub-kit-tum 

65. li-sa-as-lil-ma Apsa-am ri-hl sit-[tam] 

66. "'"Mu-um-mu ut-la-tus da'-la-bis ku-u-ru 

67. ip-tur rik-si-su is-ta-hat a-ga-[su]' 

68. me-Iam-me-su it-ba-Ia su-u u-ta-di-[ik] ^^ 

69. ik ^'-me-su-ma Apsa-am i-na-ra-as-su " 

70. [''"iMu-]um-mu i-ta-sir eli^^-su ip-tar-ka 

71. [u]-kin '^-ma eli Apsi su-bat-su 

72. ''"Mu-um-mu it-ta-mah li-dan^' sir-rit-su 

73. ul-tu "^ llm-ni-e"-su ik-mu-ii i-sa-a-du" 

74. [''"E-a] " us-ziz-zu -° ir-nit-ta-su 20 eli ="> ga-ri-su 

' KAR. 162 ii 10, u-su-ral. 

^ Text from KAR. 117, Obv. 11 and K. 4488, 12. 
' KAR. 117 omits hi; 46803, ki-il. Text from KAR. 162 ; K. 4488, 

* KAR. 162 and VAT. 10997, "^ >' VAT. 10997, ana. 

^ This reading is required by the context ; of. K. 3650 ii 2 (ZA. 4, 33), 
irihhiiu-ma si/la. 

' 46803, /«. 

' See for this meaning of tubkinu, tubkittu, Zimmern, MVAG. 191 6, 

* 46803, dal. ^ VAT. 10152, a-ga-a-'iu. 

" The last sign on 46803 appears to be ik/k. King read tiam. The 
form iitadik I take to be IP of eieku, tear away. In Arabic this verb 
hataka has the meanings, tear away a veil, expose to shame, to dishonour. 
For the original sense, break, lacerate, see IV R. 29, no. 3, 5 and V R. 
47, 49. utadik<uttattik is due to dissimilation of surds. Ebeling reads 
u-ta-ti-i from etu. 

Ea subdues Apsii 77 

6 1. He devised for himself a curse (having power 
over) all things and he made it sure.^ 

62. He made skilfully his pure incantation, surpassing 

63. He recited it and caused it to be upon the waters. 

64. He bewitched him in sleep as he reposed in a 

65. Apsii he caused to slumber, bewitching the sleep. 

66. Of Mummu who se manly parts frightfully he 

67. He severed his sinews and tore off his crown. 

68. His splendour he took from him, and he was 

69. Then he bound A^sfljind slew^him. 

70. Mummu he tied and his skull he crushed. 

71. He fixed upon Apsu his dwelling." 

72. Mummu he seized and strengthened his bands. 

73. After he had bound his enemies and had slain 

74. And he, Ea, had established his victory over his 

" Restored by VAT. 10 152. Ibid., i-nar-ma. 

" VAT. 10 1 52, e-li. The text above has MUQ = miMa, skull, ehc 
has clearly the same meaning. See also KB. vi 204, 4, e-lu-hi-nu, 'their 
heads '. This passage elucidates the origin of the preposition di, ' upon '. 
Cf. HoLMA, Korperteile, xi n. i. 

" KAR. 163 has the numeral X on the margin, i.e. 1. 70 on that 

" Under the title Nudimmud, Ea is said to have made the sea his 
abode, ibnu apsdlubat-su, Weissbach, Miscel. 32, 25. 

'= Sic ! Read H-KALAG = udannin and cf. uddannin viarkassi-lunu, 
BE. 31, 35 n. I, and stbilla-su udannin, Book IV 127. 

'" Restored from Rm. 982. 

" KAR. 163, Obv. II 40 omits e. 

'* See also Book IV 123. 

" ilu ... on Rm. 982. Cf. Book IV 125. 

-" KAR. 163, za; lul for la-lu; c-li. 

78 Tablet 1 

75. kir-bis kum-mi-su ^ sup '-su-hi-i§ i-nu-uh-[hu] 

76. im-bi-sum-ma Apsam u-ad-du-u es-ri-e-ti ^ 

77. as-ru-us-su ge ^-pir-ra-su u-sar-sid-ma 

78. """Lah-mu* '^"'La-ha-mu hi-ra-tus ina rab-ba-a-te '* 


79. ina ki-is-si simati at-ma-an " usurati ' 

80. li-'-u li-'-u-ti abkal ilani ilu ' us-tar-hi 

81. ina ki-rib Apsi ^ ib-ba-ni ''"Asur 

82. ina ki-rib elli Apsi ib-ba-ni ''"Asur^" 

83. ib-ni-su-ma ''"Lah-mu ^^ a-ba-su 

84. "''''La-ha-mu umma-su har-sa-as-su ^^ 

85. i-ti-nik-ma sir-rit Istarati 

86. ta-ri-tu ^^ it-tar-ru-su pul-ha-a-ta us-ma-al-li 

87. sam-hat ^' nab-nit "-su sa-ri-ir ni-si e-ni ^'-su 

^ kummii has the special sense ' chamber of Ea ', Sumerian, i-nun-na, 
ASKT. 104, 24; RA. 8, 162, 13; and is ordinarily employed for the 
chapel \vhere the rituals were performed, CT. i6, 36, 36; 38, 7; 
IV R. 18*, no. 6 R. 12. KAR. 163, ku-um-mi-sii. For sup, KAR. 163 
ii 6 has falsely ka. 

' K. 10008 in King, i 189 contains a selection of lines from this Epic. 
Line i on K. 10008 = 1. 76 above. See Zimmern, ibid. 223. 

M^AR. 163,^-/. 

* Rm. 982 has il^E-[a] after my collation, and KAR. 163, *'.£-«. 
For the Assyrian redaction which substitutes Lahmu and Lahamu for 
Ea (and Damkina?) see below, 1. -83, and above, 1. 10 and note. 

^ PI. of rabbutu; cf. hidutu and hiddli, and Delitzsch, Assyrische 
Grammatik, § 95. 

" Root foi, see Landsberger, ZA. 25, 384 ; RA. 14, 166, 11. 
' Text from Rm. 982, Obv. last line and KAR. 117 R. i. 

* i.e. JMarduk, or in Assyrian redaction Ahtr. abkal ildni is the 
ordinary title of Marduk; King, Magic, 12, 114; PSBA. 1912, 71, 5; 
Book IV 93. In 11. 81-2 the Bab}lonian version undoubtedly read 
Marduk, not Asur. 

Birth of Marditk 79 

75. And in his chamber he had become composed as 
one who is soothed, 

76. He named it Apsll and they determined the holy 

77. Therein he caused to be founded his secret 

78. Lahmu and Lahamu his wife abode (therein) in 

79. In the shrine of fates, the dwelling of concepts, 

80. The wisest of the wise ones, the adviser of the 
gods, a god, was engendered. 

81. In the midst of the nether sea was born_ Asur . 

82. In the midst of the pure nether sea was born Asur. 
83- Lahmu his father begat him, 

84. Lahamu his mother was his bearer. 

85. He sucked at the breasts of goddesses. 

86. A nurse tended him and filled him with terrible- 

87. Enticing was his form, the gaze of his eye was 

' See note on Book VII 83. " This line is omitted on Rm. 982. 

" The Babylonian version has «'"£-a and omits 1. 84; VAT. 10652 
also '^'"E-a. 

'^ VAT. 9873, har-hs-su. harislu, fem. part, of harasu, give birth to, 
Ethiopic harasa, lie in child-birth, aharasa, aid a woman in child-birth, 
harsa, child-birth; Arabic harasa in piel, to give food suitable for 
a woman in child-birth. In Babylonian h'r-ri lu-har-ri-sa ramdn-la, 
May she herself (without help) bring forth a child, KB. vi 286, 19 = 
CT. 15, 49 iv 19, where the Van in my Poime du Paradis, PI. X R. 21, 
has [le-yr-ri u-te-lu-u raman-la. alitti haristi, the mother who brought 
him forth, KB. vi 286, 15; PI. harsati, with tardti (midwives), IV R. 58 
iii 33 == ZA. 16, 180; kima ^"^h'lrilti, Th.-Dangin, Sargon, 151. See 
also IV R. 29* 4 C Rev. I 2 and Craig, RT. 4 Rev. 8. 

" tdritu, fem. part, of tarH, to watch, tend. See Zimmern, Hommel- 
Festschrift, 217. 

" This line in K. 10008, 2. 

^^ So Rm. 982; KAR. 117 R. 9, kal. Note also the words lamhdtu, 
iamkdtu, harlot. 

" Rm. 982, ni. " VAT. 9873, i-ni. 

So Tablet I 

88. ut-tu-lat^ si-ta-su mu-sir ul-tu ul-la 

89. i-mur-su-ma '^"Lah-mu ^ ba-nu-u abi-su * 

90. i-ris im-mir lib '-ba-su hi-du-ta * im-la 

91. us-te-is *-bi-sum-ma ^ su-un-na-at' ili us-si-ip-su 

92. su-us-ku * ma-'dis* eli-su-nu a-tar^ mitn-mu-[ma] 

93. la lam-da "-ma nu-uk-ku-la mi-na-tu-sii 

94. ha-sa-si-is'^ la na-ta-a a-ma-ris pa-as-ka 

95. ir-ba ena-su ir-ba uznS-su 

96. sap-ta ^^-su ina su-ta-bu-li ''"gibil [it-tan-pah] " 

97. ir-bu-'u ^* 4-ta-am ha-si-sa 

98. u ena ki-ma *' su-a-tu i-bar-ra-a gim-ri-e-ti 

99. ul-lu-ii "-ma ina ilani su-tur la-a-an-su 

100. mes-ri-tu ^^-su su-ut-tu-ha ^^ i-li-tam su-tur 
loi. ma-ri ia-ii-tu ma-ri ia-H-tu'''^ 

"^ n 

' KAR. wjja-al. 

- A verb ahiru, synonym of elelu, be manly, is required here. 
ZiMMERN happily compares I'meru atana ul usara, Dhorme, Choix, 334, 7 ; 
and cf. also Arabic vaihara in this sense. A parallel is uUii ulla zakrata, 
' thou (Asur) hast been manly from the beginning ', BA. v 595, 25. 

^ Rm. 982, Rev. 8 has ^^^E-a; for this writing see Strassm.'MER, 
Cyrus, 168, II. 

' VAT. 9873, a-bt-iu. » Rm. 982, lib; VAT. 9873, lam. 

" Rm. 982, la-au For the root sapi2, Arabic dafaiia, see VAB. iv 359 ; 
Ham. Code, ii 64. usl(sbi-ma, of completing a building, Messerschmidt, 
KTA. no. 2 iii 5. Ham. Code, § 233, ustesbi, (His work he did not) 
complete well. Harper, Letters, 283, 14, The service of the king 
as-si-bi, I completed. 

' Cf. Zimmern, Ishtar und Saltu, p. 18. VAT. 9873 has su-un-na-at 

Marduk's Youth 8i 

88. Virile became his growth, he was given to pro- 
creation ^ from the beginning. 

89. Lahmu, the begetter, his father beheld him. 

90. His heart rejoiced and was glad ; he was filled 
with joy. 

91. He perfected him and double godhead he added 
unto him. 

92. He was made exceedingly tall and he surpassed 
them somewhat. 

93. Not comprehended were his measurements, and 
they were skilfully made. 

94. They were not suited to be understood, and were 
oppressive to behold. 

95. Fou r were his eyes, four were his ears. 

96. When he moved his lips fire blazed forth. 

97. Four ears grew large. 

98. And the eyes behold all things, even as that one." 

99. He was lifted up among the gods, surpassing all 
in form.'* 

100. His limbs were made massive, and he was made 
to excel in height. 

loi. Son of son of 

* KAR. 117 R. 14, ki; tb'd., ma-dih 

' Cf. ell ^i^Igigi a-!ar milikka, KAR. 32, 24, and for atar, Perm, of 
aiaru, see VAB. v 279, 15. 

1° KAR. 1 1 7, da-a. " KAR. 117, sii. See Book IV 28. 

" KAR. 117, ti. " Restored by K. 9873. 

" ir-ti-bu-u, KAR. 117. Rm. 982 perhaps ir-bu-u-\ii. 

" Rm. 982, GIM. 

'° i.e. even as Ea or Lahmu. Line restored by VAT. 9873. 

" KAR. 117, ul-lu-ma\ '» Restored by VAT. 9873. 

" VAT. 9873, //. 

'"' laldhu, Sum. tu^, Syn. eli, CT. 12, 11, 22, is probably a denomina- 
tive verb from sutahu, root idhu. 

" At the beginning ma-ri ia (?) on Rm. 982, but Eb. 117 T(7J? lA- 
AN and VAT. 9873, ma-ri m-u-tu ma-ri ia-H-tu. iaulu =.ilutu{i^; 
see p. 82 n. 2. 

2887 F 

8.2 Tablet I 


1 02. mari * ''"Samsu '^"Samsu ^ ia AN. 

103. la-bis me-lam-me * es-rit ilani sa-kis it-bur* 

104. [ ]-ha-a-ti ha-mat ®-si-na e-li-su kam-ra 

105 ma sare irbitti^ u-al-lid ''"A-num 

ic6 la a-ma-a-ri-si mil-li 

107 fl-ga-am-ma i '-dal-lah ''"'Ti-amat 

108 -mi-i du-ul Mi 

109 da-a-ri-sam '^ 

1 10. li-mut-tum '" 

III tur-sa" iz-zak-kar 

1 1 2. [Apsa-am har-]ma-ki " i-na-ru-ma 

113. [mar-si-is tab-b]a-ki-ma " ka-li-is tu-us "-ba 

114 ia pu-luh-tum 

1 1 5. [a-di nu-te-ru gi-mil-la-su] ul ni-sa-al-lal ni-i-ni 

116. [in-na-nu im-ma-has-su] Ap-su-ii har-ma-ki ^* 

117. u ''"Mu-um-mu sa ik-ka-mu-ii la e-dis as-ba-a-ti" 

118. [ur-ru]-hi-is ta-du-ul-li 

' So Eb. 117 R. 24, but VAT. 9873, via-ri; this text restores the 

^ Or ilu-tu ? Then iauiu, Syn. t'Mlu ? 

^ K. 10008, 4, mi-lam-mi. Text from VAT. 9873 + Eb. 117 R. 25. 

' First sign on BM. 46803, Rev. 

° hamtu, hantu, occurs as a noun in BA. iv 520 R. 2, 'fever', and 
ZA. 24, 348; 31, 264, 'summer'. 

« IM-TAB-TAB-BA. Marduk employed the imhullu and izzite sdre 
in his combat with Tiamat, iv 98 f. 

' Var. VAT. 9843, w. ' Ibid., dul. 

' Sic 46803, but VAT. 9873, bi-ku la gi-mil-\li\ 

"> VAT. 10346, ^u. 

" So 46803 and VAT. 10346. But VAT. 9873, ->iu-/u iz- 

zak-rti (?). 


Tiamat's IVraih 8 


1 02. Son the sungod, sungod of Anu (?). 

103. He was clothed in splendour of ten{}) gods, 
powerful was he exceedingly. 

104. The loaded their fieriness upon him. 

105 the four winds did Anu beget. 


107 disturbing Tiamat. 


109 for ever. 

1 10 evil. 

III. [Unto Tiamaf) ? he related it.'^ 

112.' [Apsu] thy husband they have slain.' 

113. [Bitterly she wept] and she sat down as one 

1 14 terror. 

115.' Until we shall have brought about his revenge, 
verily not shall we sleep. 

116. And now although they are slain, Apsfl thy 

1 1 7. And Mummu, who has been bound, not alone 
sittest thou. 

1 18. Quickly hasten thou. 

" Here one of Tiamat's host reports the destruction of Apsu and 
Mummu, but in the variant, ' they related ', the whole troop of her 
demons seems to be Indicated. But in 1. 124 her informer is described 
as ilu ellu, perhaps Kingu. Possibly the gods themselves report the 
defeat of Apsu to Tiamat ; the corresponding situation occurs in 1. 56, 
where the gods of Chaos report tlieir own plan to the gods whom they 
intend to destroy. 

" Text from King, Cr. ii, PI. 12, 2 + 46803. VAT. 10346, [ha-'i-'\ 

" For baM, IV', see Thompson, Reports. 90 R. 17 ; KAR. 26, 26. 

1^ So King, Cr., PI. 12 and VAT. 10346, but 46803 iihbu. 

" Text from King, Cr. ii, PI. 12 + 46803 R. 14 a. Text ku{^); 
read ki. 

" VAT. 10346, al-ha-ti. LI. 116 f. form one line on 46803. 

F 2 

84 Tablet I 

119. [nu-ta-ar gi-mil-la-su-nu] i nl-is-lal ni-i-ni' 

120. [tab-ku ma-'-ni] hu-um^-mu-ra e ^-na-tu-u-[ni] 

121. [nu-ta-ar gi-mil-la-su-nu] i ni-is-lal ni-i-ni 

122 gi-mil-la-su-nu tir-ri 

123 a-na za-ki-ku su-uk-[ki-si] 

124. [is-me-ma Ti-amat]^ a-ma-tum i-lu el-[lu] 

125 lu ta-ad-di-nu i ni-pu-us [mus-ma-hu]" 

126 ilani ki-rib [an-duru-na] ' 

127. [ ij-tah-ha' an ilani ba-ni-[ ] 

128. [im-ma az-ru-]nim "-ma i-du-us Ti-amat ti-bi- 


129. [iz-]zu kap-du la sa-ki-pu mu-sa u [im-ma]" 

1 30. [na-]su-u tam-ha-ri na-zar-bu-bu la-ab ^^-bu 

131. ukkin-na sit-ku-nu-ma i-ban-nu-u" su-la-a-ti 

132. um-ma hu-bur^^ pa-ti-ka-at ^' ka-la-[ma] 

133. [us-rad-di] kak-ku " la mah-ru it-ta-lad mus- 


' So 46803, but King, Cr. ii, PI. 12 has ul la-ra-mi-na-\^f\. 

' K. 10008, hum. 

' Var. /. For hummura see Holm a, Die Assyrisch-Babylonisclun 
Personennamen der Form kuttulu, p. 56. The hne is restored by 
K. 10008, 5; see ZiMMERN, I.e. 223. 

* The speech in 11. 115-23 is, of course, spoken by one or all of 
Tiamat's host. The speaker seems to be referred to in 1. 124. 

^ This is King's restoration. Read Ti-amat ina leme-la (?). 

* Kingu ? or Lahmu ? The demons of Tiamat's host have not yet 
been created. 

' King restored sasma from iv 86. 

' Cf 1. 24. Dhorme supplied same, but the 'heavens' were not yet 

° Here begins KAR. 163, Rev. 

'" Cf. ii 15; iii 19; iv 77. The old reading immasru adopted by 
Delitzsch and again by Ebeling has no philological defence. The 
usual translation with this reading is, ' they separated themselves, re- 

Tiamat creates the Monsters 85 

119. [We will bring about their revenge] and let us 

120. Poured out are our bowels, dazed are our eyes. 

121. [We will bring about their revenge] and let us 

122 take vengeance for them. 

123 unto the whirlwind annihilate.'* 

124. Tiamat heard the words of the brigfht ood.'= 

125. ' verily give ye and let us make 


126 the gods in the midst of Anduruna, 

127 shall draw nigh against the gods ' 

128. [They cursed the day] and went forth beside 

129. They raged, they plotted, without resting day 
and night. 

130. They joined battle, they fumed, they raged. 

131. They assembled forces making hostility. 

132. Mother Hubur, the designer of all things, ■= W^ 

133. added thereto weapons which are not withstood ; 
she gave birth to the monsters. 

belled ', but the verb masdru has itself doubtful existence. It is said 
to occur in II R 19, i, gu gur-ru-ui-dug-dug gir-gal ■= mussi'r kisadali 
namsaru, 'sword severing the neck', for which Delitzsch, H. W. 422, 
and Muss-Arnolt, Lexicon, 573, assumed mussir = viumassir, and 
a root masarti, sever, without any reason. A root eseru, sever, alone 
explains the forms. The other examples of a root masdru in the 
lexicons belong to eseru, to outline, design. Zimmern first suggested 
the correct interpretation in Gunkel's Schopfioig und Chaos. 

" Restored from ii 16 ; iii 20. On K. 10008 another text, bi 

ap-la-na la sa-ki-pa. 

'^ KAR. 163, M. " m-d. om. 

" Hubur is the world-encircling stream of salt water. This line is in 
keeping with Sumerian philosophy, which considers water the creative 
principle. Cf. Babylonian Liturgies, p. 115 n. 2. 

" KAR. 163, kal. 

'" Lbid., gis-ku. Text from 45528 Rev. 4 — King, Cr. ii, PI. 4. Here 
begins KAR. 118, Rev. 

86 Tablet I 

1 34. [zak-tu-ma] sin-ni ^ la pa-du-ii at-ta-'a ^ 

135. [im-tu ki-ma] da-mu zu-mur-su-nu us ma-al-la 

1 36. [usumgalle] na-ad-ru-tum ^ pu-ul ^-ha-a-ti u-sal- 


137. [me-lam-me]us-tas-sa-sa-a i-li-is* [um-tas-si-il] 

138. [a-m]ir-su-nu sar-ba-ba^ lis-har-mi-mu ^ ^ 

139. zu-mur-su-nu lis-tah-hi-tam-ma la i-ni-'ii [i-rat- 


140. us-ziz'' ba-as-mu* musrussli ' u ''"La-ha-mu " 

1 KAR. 163, na. 

• Vars. an-la-'u, la-al-'-u; see iii 83; ii 21. Hommel, Grundriss, 
132 n. I, discovered the cognate mallahet (in Ethiopic), maxillary, teeth, 
jaw, see Dillmann, Lexicon Linguae Adkiopicae, 45. He also cited the 
Hebrew maltdoth. The Arabic root lalag, ladag, wound, bite, is repre- 
sented in Babyl. by kta, cheek, jaw, and km, to lacerate, Syl. C. 65 ; 
CT. 1 2, 5 a 9 ; 15 3 45 ; note the piel part, mulatti saksi, He that crushes 
the wicked, K. 1349, 7 in Winckler's Keilschriftkxk. tus-lai-ti (HI") 
in KAR. 92, 22, atta'u ■= alta'u>aniau. The form tala'u is probably 
an error for atla'u (so King). On alta'u see Holma, Korperieik, 151, 
and for ktd, p. 33, which he connected with Heb. Vi^. 

^ KAR. 118, R. 4, linTidpul. 

' Cf. i-lis (Var. e-m) umaHil, IV R. 60* C 9 = B 31 ; pikid-su i-lis 
ha-ni-lu, entrust him to his god, his creator, IV R. 54, 44. Here begins 
CT. 13, PI. 2 Rev. 

= 45528, bi-il. 

* Ibid., li-ih-kar-lnii-iml, ' Verily he shall be banned as one in terror '. 
' 45528, zi-iz. 

" Here begins the legend of the Titans who were bound and chained 
to the stars by IMarduk (Asur in the Assyrian version). Basmu probably 
represents Hydra. This identification is based upon the fact that Hydra 
was associated with the goddess of childbirth, Ninmah, Ninharsag, 
Nintud. Note that Nintud is described as a serpent from waist to feet, 
and her upper parts are those of a child-nourishing mother ; Tammuz 
and hhtar, 123. Now one of the Sumerian words for bdimu is mus- 
sag-litr, 'serpent womb', a title of Ninmah, JSOR. iii 15, 7, and in a list 
of these monsters viuhsag-lUr replaces basmu, Zimmern, Rt. no. 50, 3. 
If nais-sag-lw, a title of Ninmah, came to be employed for balmii. 


Description of the Monsters 87 

1 34. Sharp of tooth, they spare not the fang. 

135. With poison hke blood she filled their bodies. 

136. Gruesome monsters she caused to be clothed with 

137. She caused them to bear dreadfulness, she made 
them like the gods. 

138. Whosoever beholds them verily they ban him 
with terror. 

139. Their bodies rear up and none restrain their 

140. She established the Viper, the Raging-Serpent _ ,^ 
and Lahamu, 

' viper ', in the ordinary sense, and for Hydra in astronomy, that only 
proves the influence of mythology and astronomy upon language, mul 
Nin-mah is identified with Hydra, Kugler, Sternkunde, i 252, but in his 
comments on CT. 33, 5, 22 and 3, 21 in Ergdnzungen, 28 + 67, 
Kugler withdrew the identification ; Weidner, H. B. 83, identifies 
Ninmah with the tail of Hydra ; see also ibid. p. 69, and the astronomical 
name of Hydra is "^^'■hnu^, Jeremias, Haridbuch, 247 ; Kugler, Stern- 
htnde, i 230, no. 6, Rev. 2. See iv 49. 

' mus-ruL The identification of musrusM with a constellation is 
doubtful. The serpent dragon (head of a serpent, scaly body, scorpion 
tail, forefeet of a panther, and hind-feet of an eagle) on the walls of 
Babylon is called musrusht, VAB. iv 86 ii 9, &c. See for reliefs of the 
musrussH, Koldewey, Das wiedercrskhende Babylon, Abb. 32. This 
dragon persistently accompanies Marduk, see Gressmann, Altorientalische 
Texte und Bilder, II, Abb. 98, and is repeatedly associated with his 
symbol on kudtirrus, ibid. Abb. 102, &c. The viiisriishi of the sea is 
mentioned, II R. 19 b 15; cf. Gudea, Cyl. A lo, 20, ?nid-n/s-gim ki-sur- 
ra, 'like a raging serpent in the abyss'. [For kisurrH, abyss, Syn. 
hirHtu, well, see SBP. 66, 14, and {nir) KI-GAL = biriliu, II R. 44, 
no. 7, 10.] Hence musrussH is a sea-serpent and associated with 
Marduk because he had subdued this monster. Zimmern, KAT'. 503, 
identified musrussii with Tiamat, and Tiamat was identified with the 
Milky-Way, JRAS. 1920, 329-31, and Scorpio in the Milky-Way is kabis 
irat tamlim, Th.-B., I?i/ttels, 138, 313. The mus-sag-lur (basmu) and 
mul-rtu adorned the doors of the temple at Lagas, Gud. Cyl. A. 26, 24. 
Therefore musrusM = Milky-Way (?). 

'" KAR. 118, Rev. 8. Here L. a dragon of Chaos, and cf. La Amu 

88 Tablet I 

141. ugallum ^ uridimm<j ^ u ^ akrab-amelu {^irtablili) * 

142. u-mi da-ap-ru-te* kulilu ^ u ku-sa-rik-ku '' 

143. [na-]si kak-ku * la pa-du-ii la a-di-ru [ta-ha-zi] 

144. gap-sa te-ri-tu-sa la mah-ra si-na-[a-ma] 

145. ap-pu-na-ma^ is-ten es-rit '" kima " su-a-ti us- 


146. i-na ilani bu-uk-ri-sa ^^ su-ut^^ is-ku-nu-[si pu- 


hit iamtim la viaM puluh/a, Gray, Shamash, 20 iv 3 (= i 38). Lahmu 
(Ja^-nte) the male on the gates of Esagila, KB. iii 144, 50. 

' CT. 13, 2 and KAR. 118, ud-gal-md = ugalle, but KAR. 162, R. 3, 
u-gal-lum, as in ii 28, u-gal-la, iii 32 + 90, Ugal-him, great storm, angry 
spirit, PES. x 283, 36 = thnu rahu, KAR. 14 ii 13, where it is the name 
of a monster. Hmu also means ' lion ', and ud-gal — uggal = uggallu, 
great lion, so read, not nergallu, or urgaM. The ordinary word for Leo 
is mul ur-gu-la, but there is a possibility that ugaM, uggalM also means 
Leo here. This monster was represented on the doors of Esagila, 
KB. iii 144, 52. Leo or ur-gu-la is identified with ''"Latarak, CT. 33, 
I, 8, and in lists of these monsters, where ud-gal is expected, there is 
*'Latarak, Zimmern, Rt. 50, 7. 

"^ ur-idim-mu-u, KAR. 162 ; CT. 13, 2, and 45528, ur-idim-mel. The 
plural in all these variants is erroneous. This monster is the constellation 
Lupus, KuGLER, Slernkunde, Ergatizungen,'\ 28+41; Weidner, Z^a«rf- 
buch, 69. 

' So 45528. KAR. 162; CT. 13, 2; om. 

* gtr-lab-lu-gdl-lu, cf. ii 28; iii 32, universally identified with the 
archer Sagittarius. He is represented in art as a scorpion-man with 
drawn bow, V R. 57 ; King, Boundary Stories, PI. 29, &c. The ordinary 
name of Sagittarius is mul-pa-bil-sag, CT. 33, 3, 33. 

^ 45528, turn. A list of these monsters has fi-mu sa pan beli puluh/a 
harbalu . . ., ' The t/mu who before the lord terror and woe . . . (causes) ', 
KAR. 30, 8 ; Shurpu viii 8 (ZA. 30, 200). ^mu (plural) also in ii 29 ; 
iii 33 ; where it is a collective or pluralis majestalis, and refers to the 
personified words of the gods {cnem = amdtu), often called ud = umu. 
See the article ' Word ' in Hastings's Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. 

Description of the Monsters 89 

141. The Great-lion, the Gruesome Hound, the 

142. The destructive spirits of wrath, the Fish-man 
and the Fish-ram, 

143. Bearers of weapons that spare not, fearing not 
the battle. 

144. Prodigious were her designs, not to be opposed 
are they. 

145. In all eleven were they and thus she brought 
them into beine. 

146. Among the gods her first born who formed her 

Here the wrathful word is represented as a primaeval monster and 
opponent of the gods. A constellaiion is hardly intended. 

^ Var. KAR. 162, ku-li-li, but KAR. 118; CT. 13, 2; ku-lu-gal-lu; 
but ku-lu-Iu, Craig, RT. 56, 6. ^^'^Kulili, RA. 14, 171, 4 and '■^'•■Kulili, 
Craig, RT. 29, 16. The fish-man is Aquarius, Kugler, Siernkunde, 
i 261; Erganzungen, 26 + 67; Jeremias, Handbuch, 117; Weidner, 
Handbuch, 72. For designs oi Kulili set Ward, Seal Cylinders, nos. 657- 
61. This monster is mentioned in parallel lists, KAR. 30, 7; Craig, 
RT. 29, 16; 56, 6; KB. iii 44, 54. 

' Cf. ii 29; iii 33. But CT. 13, ii, 91 has ffA-DAR-rak-ki^:zku- 
dar-rakki =z kusarakku>kusarikku, loan-word from kii-ddr, fish-ram, 
Capricorn. For the origin of this word see AJSL. 31, 283-4. The 
earlier identification with Aries was false. For k. as a constellation see 
II R. 47, 38, i.e. Capricorn. The ordinary name of Capricorn is mul 
suhurmasu, and this is the name employed in the lists, KAR. 30, 7 
(with kusarikku\), Zimmern, Rt. 50, 8; Craig, RT. 56, 6; VR. 33 v i. 
For designs of the Fish-ram see Jeremias, Handbuch, 107, fig. 80. The 
Var. 45528 has gud-alim, the name of Ophiuchus, Weidner, Handbuch, 
113 ff. gud-alim is confused with Capricorn also in CT. 15, 42, below 
1, 12, and Craig, RT. 56, 6; 29, 16. 

* KAR. 162, na-as ^^Hakki la pa-di-e, ibid. 118, pa-di-i. 

' 93015 (= CT. 13, 3) -tta-a-la and es-ri-e-ti. 

"" Assyrian, like Hebrew and Syriac, forms the feminine of the word 
for 'ten' in the numerals 11-19 by adding the feminine ending a^ >(( + /)^ 
hence nnby esret. 

" 45528, ki-ma. " 93015. iu-nu; KAR. 5, su. 

" su-ul is an emphatic form of i«; cf. AJSL. 31, 271 ff. Ungnad 
regards hci as a plural, ZDMG. 69, 379 ff. 

90 Tablet 1 

147. u-sa-as-ki ^ ''"Kin-gu^ ina bi-ri-su-nu sa-a-su us- 


148. a-li-kut* mah *-ri pa-an um-ma-ni * mu-'-ir-ru-tu 


149. na-as^ kakki * ti-is-bu-tu' te-bu-u ^» a-na-an-ta 


150. su-ut tarn ^--ha-ru ^^ ra-ab^* sik-ka-tu-tu '' 

151. ip-kid-ma ka-tus "-su li-se-si-ba-as-su ina kar-ri ^* 

152. a-di " ta-a-ka ina^° puhur'^' ilani u-sar-bi-ka I 

153. ma-li-kut -^ ilani gim-ra-at-su-nu ka-^z<>^-ka ^^ us 


154. lu^* sur-ba-ta-ma -^ ha-'-i-ri^^ e-du-ii at-ta 

155. li-ir-tab-bu-u zik-ru-ka eli kali-su-nu ''"A-nu- 

uk-ki " 

156. id-din-su 2^-ma dupstmati i-rat-tus ^^ u-sat-mi-ih 

157. ka-ta^" kibit-ka la in-nin-na-a ^^ li-kun [si-it pi-i- 


158. e-nin-na^- '^"Kin^^-gu su-us-ku "* li-ku-u [''"An- 

nu-ti] ^^ 

' 45528; 93015, ka; CT. 13, 2, ki. Here begins K. 3938, Rev. i. 

^ KAR. iii, ga. ' 93015; 45528; ku-tu. 

* 45528, ;«a-<7/4-ra; gjoi 5, igipa-m. = 93015, ««. 

" KAR. 118 R. 15, UKKIN. ' 45528, se; K. 3938, se-e. 

' KAR. 5, kakke. « 45528, turn. 

'" KAR. 1 1 8, di-ku-u, and CT. 13, 2 R. 14, di-ku-H. 

" Vars. 'to summon'. " la-am, 45528; 93015. 

" ta-am-ha-a-la, 93015; from tarnahu. KAR. 5, ri. 

" rab, i.e. GAL, 93015. 

'^ 93015, lik-kat-hi-tti. From iakakii, see PSBA. 1908, 266 ff. 

" KAR. 118 and 93015 have 11. 150-1 in one line. 

" tu-ui, 45528. 

" A mourner's garment in memory of the death of ApsQ. 

Creation of Kingit 91 

147. She exalted Kingu ; in their midst she magnified 

148. As for those who go before the host, as for those 
who direct the assembly, 

149. To undertake the bearing of arms, to advance'^ 
to the attack, 

150. As to matters of battle, to be mighty in victory,'® 

151. She entrusted to his hand, and she caused him to 
sit in sack-cloth, (saying), 

152. 'I have uttered thy spell ; in the assembly of the 
gods I have magnified thee. 

153. The dominion of the gods, all of them, I have 
put into thy hand. 

154. Verily thou hast been exalted, O my husband, 
thou alone. 

155. May thy names be greater than all of the names 
of the Anunnaki.' 

156. She gave him the tablets of fate, she caused 
them to be fastened upon his breast, (saying), 

157. 'As for thee, thy command is not annulled ; the 
issue of thy mouth is sure.' 

158. And now Kingu who had been exalted, who had 
received Anuship, 

" ad-dt, 45528; KU= nadii, 93015. KAR. 5, ad{i)-dt. 

■"• i-na, 45528. " pu-Aur, 45528. 

" ku-u/, 45528. " So KAR. 118 R. 19, and cf. iii 102. 

" /u-u, 45528; KAR. 5. ''^ -ta-a, 93015. 

'* -a-ri, 93015; ha-i-ri, KAR. 5. 

" A-nu-uk-\ki\ KAR. 118; cf. CT. 13, 5, Obv. \\=Cr. ii 42. For 
the various writings of Anunnakki see Bab. vi 106, and E-nu-uk-ki, 
CT. 25, 18 R. 8 ; E-nu-na-ki, RA. 13, 168. See note on iii 104. 

'" 930150m. la; 45528, «</«. ^' KAR. \\%,i-ra-tui. 

^ ka-at-ta, 93015. '^ la-a en-na-a, KAR. 5. 

'^ in-na-nu, 93015; m-tia-an-na, 45528. 

" {ki-'\in, CT. 13, 2 R. 23. ^* -hu-u, 93015. 

" This line on K. 10008, 7. 

g2 Tablet I 

I 59. ina ^ ilani [ma-]ri-e-su - si-ma-ta [is-ti-mu] 

160. ip-sa^ pP-ku-nu '^"GiblP li-[ni-ih-ha] J 

161. gasru ina« kit-mu-ru ma-ag-sa-ru lis-[rab-bi-ib] '' 
u-kab-bit-ma Ti-a-ma-tum [pi-ti-ik-su] ^ f 

Colophon I ^^ 

1. duppu e-nu-ma e-lis ri-es ki-ma la-bi-[ri-su sa-tlr- 


2. duppi^P'^ ''"Naba-balat-su-ik-bi mar-su sa Naid- 


3. sa kat ''" Naba-balat-su-ik-bi mari-su sa Na'id- 


Colophon IP^ 

1. duppu isten-kam e-nu-ma e-lis ul-tu ell [duppi]'^ 

2. gab-ri Bab-ili-(ki) ki-ma la-bir-ri-sii satir-[ma] 

3. duppi^P')''''Nabu-mu-se-ti-ik-umi mar 

4. pa-lih ''"Marduk u "'"Zar-pa-[ni-tum ina sar-tu la 


5. u [ina?]" mi-ris-tum la ikalli ^° 

6. arhu aiaru fimu 9-kam sattu 27-kam Da-[ri-ia-mus] 

' a-na, 45528. " mare-lu, 45528. 

= lu, 98909. ' pi-i, 45528. 

^ BIL-GL, 93015; KAR. 5 ; GIS-BAR, 45528; CT. 13, 2. Here 
Marduk is meant. For Marduk = Gibil see Reisner, SBH. 64, 3 = 
BA. V 659, 26, mu-bar-ra — ^'■"■Gibil, title of Marduk. 

« 93015 + 45528 om. 'Cf. ii52. 

' gahu is the most probable rendering of IM-TUK, but kabtu is 
a possibility. 

^ Catchline on 45528. Om. on 93015. 

Colophons of Tablet I 93 

159. Among the gods her sons fixed the destinies, 

160. 'Open ye your mouths; verily it shall quench 
the fire-god. 

161. He who is strong* in conflict may humiliate 


Tiamat strengthened her handiwork. 

Colophon I ^^ 

1. First tablet of Enuma Elis, according to its original 
it was written. 

2. The tablet of Nabu-balat-su-ik-bi son of Naid- 

3. by the hand of Nabu-balat-su-ik-bi, son of Na'id- 

Colophon IP^ 
I. First tablet of Enuma Elis, taken from upon a tablet 

2. a copy from Babylon, according to its original it 
was written. 

3. The tablet of Nabu-musetik-flmi, son of 

4. worshipper of Marduk and Zarpanitum ; [In fraud 
did he not edit it] 

5. and in wisdom he withheld nothing 

6. Month Ayyar, 9th day, 27th year of Darius. 

" From the Babylonian text 93015. 

" See 'Syllabar in the Metropolitan Museum', JSOR. i 19 ff. ; also 
Colophon II 3. 

'^ From the Babylonian text 45528. 

" Q)x gis\li-ii-um}\ 

" The preposition ina is suggested by CT. 12, 317 29. 

'= Sign KUL = kaia, restrain, SAI. 6721. Cf. CT. 12, 7, Colophon, 
ina me-ri-es-tt la KUL, with ibid. PI. 3, ina me.-ril-twn la i-kal-li and 
PBS. X 329, 25, ina me-ris-tum la u-sa-bi. kalil, to restrain, is, therefore 
certain in this obscure passage. 

94 Tablet II 


1. li-kab-bit-ma Ti-a-ma-tum ^ pi-ti-ik-su 

2. ta-ha-[zi ^ ik]-ta-sar a-na ilani ni-ip-ri-su 

3. ah ^ tur [gi-mil]-li Apsi u-lam-mi-in Ti-amat 

4. a-na-an-ta - ki-i is-mi-da a-na ''"E-a ip-ta-sar 

5. is-me-ma ''"E-a a-ma-tum su-a-tim* 

6. [mar-si]-is us-ha-ri-ir-ma sa-ku-um-mi-is us-ba^ 

7. [tjme u-]ri-ku-ma uz-za-su i-nu-hu 

8. [ur-ha-su as-ri]-is An-sar a-bi-su su-u us-tar-di ' 

9. [il-lik]-ma mah-ru a-bi ' a-li-di-su An-sar 

10. [mim-mu-]u Ti-amat ik-pu-du li-sa-an-na-a a-na 


11. [um-ma] Ti-amat a-lit-ti-a-ni * i-zi-ir-ra-an-na-a-ti 

12. [pu-]uh-ru ' sit '-ku-na-at-ma ag-gi-is la-ab-bat 

13. [is-]hu-ru-sim-ma ilani gi-mi-ir '"-su-un 

14. [a-di]" sa at-tu-nu tab-na-a i-da-a-sa al-ka ^^ 

15. im-ma az-ru-nim-ma i-du-us Ti-amat te-bu-ii-ni" 

16. iz-zu kap-du la sa-ki-pu mu-sa u im-ma" 

1 7. na-su-u tam-ha-ra ^^ na-zar-bu-bu la-ab-bu ^* 

' K. 10008, 1. 8, Ti-a-iva-ii. 

^ Restored from 98909 = CT. 34, 18. 

' ah is probably a preposition derived from a/iu, arm, side ; then ' for 
the sake of. Cf aA kitti lardm, 'Thou lovest the part of justice', 
RA. 15, 64, 19. 

* Rm. 395, in King, ii 62, seems to have this line, but for Ea it has 
iluEN, i. e. Enlil (?). We have here a trace of the older Sumerian myth. 

^ One expects ba. 

* Restorations in 11. 6-8 were made by King. 


Ea reports to the Gods i  95 


1. Tiamat strengthened her handiwork. 

2. Battle she arrayed against the gods her offspring. 

3. For the sake of avenging Apsu Tiamat did evil. 

4. How she joined up hostility, unto the god Ea one 

5. Ea heard of this matter, 

6. Painfully he became faint, like one who lapses into 
silence he sat down. 

7. The days lengthened and when his anger cooled, 

8. To AnsaLJii^ ^3ther he pursued his way. 

9. He went before the father his begetter, Ansar. 

10. Repeating to him what Tiamat had plotted, 

1 1. Saying : ' Tiamat our bearer has cursed us. 

12. She hath called together a host, angrily raging. 

13. All the gods have turned away unto her, 

14. Except those whom you created ; they go at her 

15. They cursed the day-light and at the side of 
Tiamat they go up." 

16. They raged, they plotted, without resting night 
and day. 

17. They raised the standard of battle, fuming and 

' VAT. 2553, ma-har a-hi-la. 
« VAT. 2553, -ta-jii. Cf. Book III 73. 
° Here begins 38396 = CT. 13, 4 ; 38396, li-it. 
" VAT. 2553, mir. 

" adi means (i) 'up to and including', and (2) 'up to and not 
including ', i. e. all except. This second meaning probably occurs here. 
'^ 38396, ku. " 38396, -bi-u-nu. 

" Cf. i 128. Here begins 92632 = King, ii PI. 22. 
" 92632, mil. '* 38396, ri; 92632, bi. 


96 Tablet II 

18. ukkin-na sit-ku-nu-ma i^-ban-nu-u su-la-a-tum ' 

19. um-ma^ hu-bu-ur^ pa-ti-ik-ka-at ^ ka-Ia-mu 

20. us-rad'-di kak-ku la mah-ru *it-ta-lad mus-ma-hu ^ 

21. zak-tu-ma sin-nu la pa-du-ii at-ta-'-um* 


22. im-tu ki-ma da-am* zu-mur-su-nu us-ma-al-lu ^ 

23. usumgalle na-ad-ru-ti pu-ul-ha-a-ti u-sal-bis-ma 

24. me-lam-mu us-tas-sa-a i-li-is um-tas-si-il * 

25. a-mi-ir-su-nu sar-ba-bi-is li-ih-har-mi-im 

26. zu-mur-su-nu lis-tah-hi-ta-am'' -ma la i-ni-'-e * i-rat'- 


27. us-zi-iz-ma ba-as-mu '^"musrus" u ''"La-ha-mu 

28. fi-gal-la ur-idim-me u ''"akrab-amelu 

29. 1i-me da-ap-ru-ti kulilu " u ku-sa-rik-ku f 

30. na-si kak-ku la pa-du-u la a-di-ru ta-ha-zi 

31. gap-sa te-ri-tu-sa la ma-har-ra si-na-ma 

32. ap-pu-na-ma is-ten es-rit ki-ma su-a-ti us-tab-si 

33. i-na ilani bu-uk-ri-sa su-ut is-ku-nu-si pu-uh-ru ^- 

' 38396, a\; 92632, -/;". 

'^ 38396, vm ; bur ; both Vars. omit ik. 

^ 38396, ra-ad; ma-har; 92632, mus-mah; 38396, vitismahhe. 

' <)2(s'^2, at-ta--am; ^S^^S, ai-/a-'-u-am. 

^ 92632, da-mi; 38396, da-mu; both Vars. la for lu. 

* So 38396 and 92632, but 40559, ir for il. For the change />r 


Description of Ttamafs Host 97 

18. They have collected forces, making hostility. 

19. Mother, Hubur, the designer of all things, 

20. Has added thereto weapons, which are not with- 
stood, she has given birth to monstrous serpents. 

21. Sharp of tooth are they and they spare not the 

22. With poison like blood has she filled their bodies. 

23. Gruesome monsters she caused to be clothed with 

24. She caused them to bear dreadfulness, she made 
them godlike. 

25. Whoever beholds them, lo he is banned as one in 

26. Verily, their bodies reared up and none restrain 
their breast. 

27. She has established the Viper, the Raging-Serpent, 
and Lahamu, 

28. The Great-lion, the Gruesome Hound, the Scorpion- 

29. The destructive spirits, the Fish-man, and the 

30. The bearers of weapons that spare not, fearing not 
the battle. 

31. Prodigious were her designs; not to be opposed 
are they. 

32. In all eleven were they; thus she brought them 
into being. 

33. Among the gods, her first-born, they who formed 
her assembly, 

cf. beli>beri, Amama Letters, ed. Knudtzon, 286, 7; 15, 32. Also 
cf. palasdhu>parasahu, Ebeling, Quellen, 10, 58, and dumaVsar = 
tumasial, Boghazkeui, i 3, 61. 

' 92(>i2, dam. « 38396, i-7«-'-2>;z ; 92632, z-«z-'-«. 

° 92632, ra-at. i" 92632, PI. mulrulh^ 

" Sec note on i 142. '= K. 4832 = CT. 13, 5, ra. 

2687 Q 

98 Tablet II 

34. li-sa-ds-ka ''"Kin-gu ina bi-ri-su-nu sa-a-su us-rab- 

bi-is ^ 

35. a-H-ku-ut mah-ru pa-ni um-ma-nu mu-ir-ru-tum ^ 

pu-uh-ru * 

36. na-se-e kak-ku ti-is-bu-tum te-bu-ii a-na-an-tum * 

3 7. [su-u]t ta-am-ha-ra ra-ab sik-kat-u-tum ^  

38. [ip-kid-m]a ka-tu-us-su li-se-si-ba-as-si i-na ^ kar-ri 

39. [a-di ta-a]'-ka i-na pu-hur ilani u-sar-bi-ka 

40. [ma-li-kut] ila[ni gim-rat-su-nu ka-tuk-ka] us-mal-li 

41. [lu-u sur-ba-ta-ma ha-'i-ri e-du-u a]t-ta 

42. [li-ir-tab-bu-u zlk-ru-ka eli kali-su-nu '^"E-nu]-uk- 


43. [id-din-su-ma dupsimati i-ra-tu-us] u-[sat-m]e-ih 

44. [ka-ta kibit-ka la in-nin-na-a] li-kun s[i-i]t pi-i-ka 

45. [e-nin-na ''"Kin-gu su-us-ku]-u ll-ku-u "'"A-nu-ti 

46. [ina ilani mare-sa] si-ma-ta is-ti-mu 

47. [ip-sa pi-ku-nu] ''"GIS-BAR li-ni-ih-ha 

48. [gasru ina kit-mu-ri] ma-ag-sa-ra lis-rab-bi-ib 

49. [is-me-ma ''"An-sar sa Ti-a-ma]-tu dannis dal-hat" 

' K. 4832 om. = K. 4832, tti. 3 K. 4832, puhru. 

" K. 4832, ti. ^ K. 4832, tu-n-ti. " K. 4832, ina. 

' Cf. I 152. » See Tablet I, 153. » K. 4832, Obv. 11. Cf. i 155. 

Description of Kingu 99 

34. She exalted Kingu ; in their midst she magnified 

35. As for those who go in the front of the host, as 
for those who direct the assembly, 

36. To undertake the bearing of arms, to advance to 
the attack, 

37. As to the matters of battle, to be mighty in 

38. She entrusted to his hand, and she made him sit 
in sackcloth, (saying) : 

39. ' I have uttered thy spell ; in the assembly of the 
gods I have made thee great. 

40. The dominion of the gods, all of them, I placed 
into thy hand.' 

41. Verily, thou art exalted, O my husband, thou 

42. May thy names be greater than all of the names 
of the Anunnaki.' 

43. She gave him the tablets of fate ; she caused 
them to be fastened upon his breast, (saying) : 

44. ' As for thee, thy command is not annulled ; the 
issue of thy mouth is sure.' 

45. And now Kingu who had been exalted, who had 
received Anuship, 

46. Among the gods, her sons, fixed the destinies, 

47. ' Open ye your mouths : verily, it will quench the 

48. He who is strong in conflict, may humiliate 

49. [Ansar heard that Tiamat] was mightily working 
confusion ; 

'" Or, verily, may it quench the fire-god; cf. i i6o. 
" Text only on K. 4832, Obv. 18. Restored so by Jensen, King, and 

G 2 


Tablet II 

50. [siin-su im-has-ma sa-p]at-su^ it-tas-ka 

51. [a-di-ir libba-su] la na-hat ka-ras-su 

52 su sa-gi-ma-su us-tah-ha-ah ^ 

53 u tu-ku-un-tu 

54. [kakka sa te]-pu-su i tas-si at-ta 

55. ['^"Mu-um-mu u] Apsfi ta-na-ra 

56. [u-sa-as-ki """KinJ-gu a-ll-[ik]^ ma-har-sa 
57 e ta-sim-ti 

58. [i-pul-su-ma ma-lik ilani] '^"N[U]-DI[M-MUD] * 

69 -ta 

70. ...... ni 

71. [An-sar iz]-zi-is [il]-si ' 

72. [a-na ''"A-nim] ma-ri-su [a-ma-tum i]-zak-kar 

73. [as-tu-ma a]n-nii-u k[a]-su-[su] kar-ra-di 

74. [sa sa-ka-a e-mu]-ka-a-su la ma-har te-bu-su 

75. [al-kam-m]a '' mut-tis Ti-amat i-ziz-za at-ta 

76. [lip-sah] kab-ta-tas lib-bu-us lip-pu-us * 

77. sum-ma]* la se-ma-ta a-mat-ka 

78. [a-ma-t]u-ni at-me ^°-sim-ma si-i lip-pa-as-ha 

' Restored by Delitzsch after CT. 15, 46 R. 21 ; Var. KAR. i R. 16, 
pi-en-sa or uznefi-sa. 

' sahdhu, Arabic sahka, pour out, in Bab., bend, be limpid. A man's 
head isahhuh, ' is weak witli feebleness', CT. 23, 33, 22 ; 32, 8. Hence 
'be faithless, untrue', isahhuhu, Bg. Keui, i 17, 14. Syriac sahjha, limp. 
seri tslahka. My flesh is flabby, KAR. 108, 11. Cognate of Hebrew 
nnty. See the Canaanitish forms ushihen, ihihihen, &c., in BQhl, Sprache 
der Amarnabriefe, 64. 

' Text a-Ji; Jensen, to whom the recent texts were unknown, rendered 
a-li as a form of the verb leu and mah ir as the verb mahdru, ' I am able 
to go against her '. King regarded ali as the word ' where ', i. e. ' where 
is one to oppose her ? ' With King's reconstruction the reading rna-hir- 
sa would be preferable. For my restoration cf. 1. 35 above. 

Defeat of Ea. Appeal to Anu loi 

50. [He smote his loins ;] he bit his lips ; 

51. [He was gloomy in his heart;] his soul was not 
at rest. 

52 his crying faltered. 

53 battle. 

54. ' [The weapons which thou hast made] verily mayest 
thou bear. 

55. [Mummu and] Apsu thou hast smitten. 

56. [She hath exalted] Kingu, who goeth before her. 
57 wisdom.' 

58. The counsellor of the gods, Nudimmud, answered 
him (and said),* 

69. .....••• . 

70- • • _ • _ 

71. Ansar angrily cried out, 

72. Unto Anu, his son, addressing a word : 

73. ' Harsh is this one, the cruel power of a hero. 

74. [Whose] strength is [pre-eminent]," whose advance 
is unopposable. 

75. Go and in the presence of Tiamat stand. 

76. May her soul repose ! May her heart be glad. 

77. [If] she will not have hearkened to thy word, 

78. Speak our word to her. Verily, she will be 

* The break in the sources at this point was estimated at only ten 
lines by King, but it is probably greater. The text is next taken up 
by ^c)-7-8, 178, end of Obverse, which on this calculation would have 
seventy-five lines on the Obverse. The break contained Ea's refusal to 
meet Tiamat, although he had defeated Apsfl and Mummu with his 

^ CT. 13, 6, 3. " King's restoration. ' Jensen, a-lik-ma. 

* napaiu, same root as rapam ; see Brockelmann, Vergleichende Gram- 
matik, 231 (e). Cf. viuUppik kabitii mu-nap-pii lib-bi, ' He who encourages 
the soul, and gladdens the heart ', BA. x, p. 96, 4. See below, 1. 99. 

' Restored by Jensen. 

'« P Imp. of e?/i/!. The restoration is King's, but doubtful. 

102 Tablet II 

79. [is-me-e] ' -ma zik-ri abi-su An-sar 

So. [us-te-sir] ^ har]-ra-an-sa-ma u-ru-uh-sa us-tar-di 

81. [it-hi-ma]^ ''"A-num me-ku-us* Ti-a-wa-ti i-si-'-am- 


82. [ul i-li-'-a ma-har-sa]^ i-tu-ra ar-kis 

83. [il-li-kam-ma sar-ba-bis a-na a-bi a-li-di]-su An-sar * 

84. [a-na Ti-amat ki-a-am i]-zak-kar-su 

85. [i-mat]-ti ka-ti sa ka-mi-ki ina muh-hi-ia ^ 

86. us-ha-ri-ir-ma An-sar kak-ka-ri i-na-at-ta-[al] 

87. i-kam-ma-am a-na ''"E-a li-na-si * kakkad-[su] 

88. pa-ah-ru ' ma-an-za-za ka-li-sii-nu '^"A-nu-u[k-k]i 

89. sapte-su-nu ^° ku-ut-tu-ma-ma ka-I[i-is us-bu] " 

90. iki ai-um^^-ma uP^ ia-ar ki-[;-z'^ tam-ha-ri]'* 

91. ma-ha-ri-is Ti-amat ul us-si i-[na napisti^^] 

92. be-lum An-sar a-bi ilani ra-bi-[is u-sib]^^ 

93. [us-]tab-il lib-ba-su-ma [a-na '^"A-nu-uk-]ki iz-[zak- 

kar] »' 

' Restored by Delitzsch. '^ Restored by King. 

' So King after IV 65. Jensen, ik-rib-ma. 

* On meku, see note on I 60. 

^ So Jensen from III 53. Cf. Smith, Saiecherib, 22, ul i-li-'u ma- 

'' For a restoration of lines 83-101, cf. also Zimmern's article, ' Marduks 
(Ellils, Assurs) Geburt im babylonischen Weltschopfungsepos ', in the 
Homnul-Festschrift, p. 224. 

' Immediately before this line Zimmern conjectures \ana Ti-amal ki 
u-nias-si-ru-si ki-am ak-bi-si\ ' Unto Tiamat, when I kft her, thus I said 
to her'. A tablet, first published by Sayce in PSBA. 1911, 6, and now 
in the Royal Scottish Library, Edinburgh, supplies lines 85-92. Sayce's 
fragment was discussed in The Expository Times, 19 11, 278, and a later 


Defeat of Ami 103 

79. [He heard] the command of his father Ansar. 

80. [He directed straight] (his) path to her ; he pur- 
sued her way. 

81. Anu [approached] and he perceived the plan of 

82. [But he could not withstand her], and he turned 

83. He fled as one in terror unto the father, his 
begetter, Ansar, 

84. Saying unto Tiamat in this manner, 

85. ' My hand is too weak to bind thee by myself! 

86. Ansar lapsed into silence, looking upon the ground, 

87. Moaning, and shaking his head at Ea. 

88. They assembled unto the place, all of them, the 

89. Their lips were closed ; they sat down moaning : 

90. ' Not any god proceeds into battle. 

91. From the presence of Tiamat not one escapes 
with his life.' 

92. The lord Ansar, father of the gods, sat in 

93. He pondered in his heart and to the Anunnaki 
said : 

collation of the text was used by Rogers in his Cuneiform Parallels. 
For the text see Babylonian Liturgies, PI. 9. MUH-ia is still to be 
seen at the end of 79-7-8, 178. 

' ZiMMERN derives from 7idsu, to tremble, and cites nil's kakkadi, a syn. 
of kamdmu, in CT. 18, 26, K. 10014. The form undsi for unds is 
difficult. Perhaps the same root in the form naM, exists. Cf. Kuchler, 
Med. 54, 5, libba-su na-hi-u, 'His inwards heave ', and Boissier, DA. 
56, 7, lianma ku-li-li na-su-u, ' If flies whirl in swarms '. 

» ru on KAR, 5 R. i 

'» KAR. 5 R. 2, un. Cf. kalam sap-li-sa, IV 98. " Cf. I 113. 

1^ So KAR. 5 R. 3. " Jbid., la-a. 

" ZiMMERN restores Ti-amat. "^ So Zimmern. 

" Z. ii-bi. " Here begins K. 4832, Rev. 

I04 Tablet II 

94. [sa e-mu-ku-]us ga-as-ra mu-tir gi-mil-lu ' 3.-bi- 


95. [su-u] ha-la-as tuk-ma-te "'"Marduk kar-du 

96. P^Marduk] il-si-ma '^"E-a a-sar pi-ris-ti-su 

97. [il]-li-[k]a-ma ^ ak lib-bi-su i-ta-mi^-sa 

98. '^"Marduk te-mi* mil-ka se-mi abi-ka 

99. at-ta-ma ma-ri ^ mu-nap-pi-su lib-bi-su 

100. mut-ti-is An-sar kit-ru-bi-is '' ti-hi-e-ma* 

loi. [i-pu]-us pi-i-ka^ i-zu-za^" e-ma-ru-uk-ka'^ ni-i- 

102. ih-du-ma be-lum a-na a-ma-tum a-bi-su 

103. it-hi-e-ma it-ta-zi-iz ma-ha-ri-is" An-sar 

104. i-mur-su-ma An-sar lib-ba-su tu-ub-ba-a-ti '* im-la^^ 

105. is-si-ik sap"ti-su a-di-ra-su ut-te-is-si ^' 

106. [An-sar] la suk-tu-mat" pi-ta" sap-tu-uk^" 

107. lu-ul-lik-ma lu^^-sa-am-sa-a ma-la lib-bi-ka 

108. [An-sar] la suk-tu-mat pi-ta^^ sap*^-tu-uk 

109. [lu-ul-]lik-ma lu-sa-am-sa-a ma-la lib-bi-ka 
1 1 o. di-u zik-ri ^* ta-ha-za-su u-se-si-ka ^* 

' K. 38396, Rev. I. The name of Marduk taken from this text in 
CT. 25, 47, 16 is mu-lir gi-mil ahi-\lu\. Cf. also II 74. Zimmern 
reads a-\7ia 7ia-a-'ii'\ at the end. 

"^ VAT. 2553-l-KAR. 5 R. II. The line occurs on K. 10008, 9. 

' K. 4832, me. ' VAT. 2553 + KAR. 5 R. 12. 

^ KAR. 5, ru. 

' One of the titles of Marduk, CT. 25, 47, 18. ' K. 4832, lis. 

* 40559 (King, Cr. ii, PI. 18), ti-hi-ma. The beginning of this line is 
restored by VAT. 2553. 

Appeal to Marduk 105 

94. 'He whose strength is mighty will be the avenger 
of his father. 

95. He is the scourge of conflict, even the valiant 

96. Ea summoned Marduk to the place of his counsel. 

97. When he came he spoke to him according to his 

98. # O Marduk consider a plan ; hear thou thy father ; 

99. Thou art my son, "He that gladdens his heart" 
(is thy name).'^ 

100. Into the presence of Ansar approach in reverence. 

1 01. Speak and stand forth ; when he beholds thee he 
will be comforted.' 

102. The lord rejoiced at the word of his father, 

103. He approached and stood before Ansar. 

104. Ansar beheld him and his heart was filled with 

105. He kissed his lips causing his fear to be far 

106. ' Ansar, remain not dumb ; open thy lips. 

107. Verily I will go; I will cause to be attained the 
fulness of thy heart. 

108. O Ansar mayest thou not remain dumb, open 
thy lips. 

109. Verily I will go, I will cause to be attained the 
fulness of thy heart. 

no. What man is it who has brought battle against 
thee ? ' 

» Restored by VAT. 2553. '° 38396. "3- 

" K. 4832, om. ha. '^ K. 4832; ni-ih-ha; 40559, ni-i-hu. 

" 39396 ; K. 4832, ris. " 40559. -ba-i'^- '' 1^^^., -It. 

" 40559, sa-ap. " Jbid., -su. 

" VAT. 10585, lu-uk-tu-ma-at. 

" K. 4832 ; 38396, -ti. ^KY. 10585, pi-i-ii. 

=" 38396, sa-ap-tu-uk ; K. 4832, sap-Ink. " VAT. 2553, Iti-u. 

^■^ Vars. ti. " 38396, ia-ap. 

" VAT. 10585, zi-ik-ru; 2553, zik-ru. " 40559. ?'-""^- 

io6 Tablet II 

HI. [ma-ri]i Ti-amat sa si-in-ni-sa-at ^ ia-ar-ka i-na 

kak-ku 5 

112. [a-bi] ba-nu-u * hi-di ^ u su-li-il ^ 

113. ki-sa-ad Ti-amat ur-ru-hi-is ta-kab-ba-as at-ta 

114. [a-bi] ba-nu-u hi-di ^ u su-li-il * 

115. [i-sid] '' Ti-amat ur-ru-hi-is ta-kab-ba-as at-ta 

1 1 6. ma-ri ' mu-du-ii gim-ri uz-nu ' 

1 1 7. [Ti-amat] su-up-si-ih ^° i-na te-e-ka " el-lu ^^ 

118. [""narka]bat ^^ flme ur-ru-hi-is'* su-tar-di-ma 

1 19. [ri-su]-us-su '^ la ut-tak-ka-su '^^ te-e-ri '' ar-ka-nis " 

1 20. [ili-du-ma] be-kim " a-na -° a-mat a-bi-su 

121. [e-]Ii-is ^' li'b-^-ba-su-ma a-na a-bi-su-^ i-zak-kar^* 

122. [<56'-]lum ^^ ilani si-mat ^"^ ilani rabuti 

123. sum-ma-ma ana-ku -'' mu-tir gi-mil-li-ku-ma 

124. a-kam-me Ti-amat-ma ^'^ u-bal-lat ka-a-su-un 

125. suk-na-ma pu-uh^^ra su-te-ra i-ba-a" sim-ti^'' 

' Ansar addresses Marduk as 'my son' in 1. 116 below. But Ea is 
the father of Marduk and son of Ansar. The word mdru is employed 
in a loose sense here. Note that Rlarduk is also called son of Lahmu 
and Lahamu, III 55. 

^ A noun employed as a predicate has the construct form, hence 
-sa-tum, 38396 is not good syntax. VAT. 2553, sin-nis-lai. 

' K. 4832, Gli-KU. ' So VAT. 2553. 

^ VAT. 10585, hu-u-du. ' K. 4832, //•/. ' Cf. IV 129. 

* VAT. 2553, ma-a-ru. ' K. 4832, ^/-w«>- uz-7ii. 

" VAT. 2553, sup-si-ha. " 38396, ki. " K. 4832, h: 

" VAT. 2553 has after the break UD-MES, Ebeling, Weltschopfungs- 
lied, 32. At the end of the break Ebeling saw a sign which resembled 
J*"! and he restored ^^^'narkabat, for which cf. IV 50. The sign may 
possibly be ^T][^I {uh), which would impose the reading [u-ru]uh. 

» VAT. 2553, M. 

''^ So VAT. 2553. Ebeling lesiores pa-nu-us-su, and derives uttakkalu 



Mardiik's Demands 107 

111. ' My son, it is Tiamat who is a woman ; she will 
come against thee with weapons.' 

112. ' My father, creator, rejoice and be glad. 

113. The neck of Tiamat straightway shalt thou tread 

114. My father, creator, rejoice and be glad. 

115. The hinder parts of Tiamat straightway shalt 
thou tread upon.' 

116.' My son, wise in the totality of understanding, 

117. Cause [Tiamat] to cease with thy pure incanta- 

1 1 8. The chariot of storms quickly drive. 

119. Her [helpers] will not tarry for her; turn (her) 

120. The lord rejoiced at the command of his father. 

121. His heart exulted as he spoke unto his father; 

1 22. ' Lord of the gods. Destiny of the great gods, 

123. If I, your avenger,-' 

124. Bind Tiamat and keep you alive, 

125. Convene the assembly, announce again ^^ my fate. 

from ekesu, drive out, cf. IV, Prt. lillaku, Zimmern, Shtirpu, iv 66 and 
p. 56. He translates 'sein Antlitz(?) werde nicht vertrieben', which 
is not convincing. My restoration is suggested by IV 107 and uttakka- 
lu {sa) is explained as IP of wakil, wait for, protect, Arabic tiakiia. 
Cf. ana sit pi-iji ulaggd, ' O wait upon my command ', Imp. IP, Mas. 
PI., KAR. 38, 10. 

'° VAT. 2553; 92632, sa. " Sic! Imp. Fem. for /e-tr. 

'* VAT. 2 55^,ar-Aa-nu-us; K. 4832, ar-ia-nis. " VAT. 2553, //. 

'" K. 4832, I'na. Cf. above, 1. 102. " e/esi/, see VAB. iv 314. 

" K. 292 (= CT. 13, 6) begins here and has lib-lia-sit. 

" K. 4832, AB-su. " Last word on the edge of 3B396. 

" So apparently K. 292, but VAT. 2553 iantt i.e. KAK. Read 
ba-7ium{i), and for LUM {nu, man) see Vocabulary Scheil, 46. 

^^ 40559. NAM-ME^. " 40559, a-na-ku. 

'' Cf. Ill 58. " 40559. -am-ma. » 40559, M. 

" Ibtd., su-te-ir ba-'a. ^'^ Ibid., turn. 

" lutera, a helping verb, Imp. of tcataru. For this helping verb 

io8 Tablet II 

126. ina Ub-su-ukkin-na-ki ^ mit-ha-ris^ ha-dis ^ tis"- 


127. ip-su pi-ia ki-ma ka^-tu-nu-ma si-ma-ta^ lu-si-im 

128. la ut-tak-kar mim''mu-u a-ban-nu-u a-na-ku 

129. ai i-tur ai i°-in-nin-na-a se-kar sap''-ti-ia 


An-sar pa-a-su I-pu-sam-ma 

Colophon I ^ 
[duppu] 2-kam e-nu-ma-e-lis ki-i pi-i [duppi] 

gab-ri ""^'Assur^i 

Colophon II ' 

[ki-ma la-bi-ri]-su sa-tir-ma barim duppi '^"Nabii- 

[mari-su sa] Etir-'^"Bel mar ""^^sangu "'''Mas [ina 

mi-ris-tum] la ikalli 


1. An-sar pa-a-su i-pu-sam-ma' 

2. a-na "'"Ga-ga ^'' sukkalli-su a-ma-tu i-zak-kar 

cf. kuit kail enu tttliru, ' He who changed the agreement repeatedly ', 
Knudtzon, Gehete, 148 R. 7. liilkun lutlir, AJSL. vol. 28, 221, 46. 
sutera may be equally well III" of tdni, also a helping verb. Cf. itur 
enah-ma, 'It fell to ruins again', Messerschmidt, KTA. 51 II 20. ibd, 
ba , Imp. oi naM. VAT. 2553, ib-ba-a. 

' 40559, kam. ^ Ibid., ri-ts, di-is, and li-is. 

^ Ibid., ka-a ; turn. * Ibid., mi-ivi. 

^ Ibid., om. * Ibid., la-ap. 

' From the Assyrian tablet K. 292. 

* From the Babylonian tablet 40559. 

' Text from KAR. 173 and K. 3473 (CT. 13, 7). 

Colophons 109 

126. In Ubsukkinaku seat yourselves together glad- 

127. If my mouth be opened may I decree fates even 
as you, 

128. And whatsoever I create shall not be changed. 

129. May the speech of my lips not return and be 
made of no avail' 

Ansar opened his mouth. 

Colophon I ' 

2. Second tablet of Enuma Elis according to a tablet 

3 a copy from Assur. 

Colophon II ^ 

2. Accordinsf to its orig^inal it was written. The tablet 
of Nabfl-ahe-iddina, 

3. Son of Etir-bel, son of the priest of Mas. In 
wilfulness he withholds nothing. 


1. Ansar opened his mouth 

2. And unto Gag-a his messenger he addressed a word : 

'" Gaga messenger of Ansar in the third book of enuma elis is men- 
tioned in a ritual with ''"Asur, Bu. 91-5-9, 104, Zimmern, Neujahrs/esi'^, 
p. 131. The ritual introduces these deities of the myth of Creation so as 
to interpret certain aspects of the service as having mystic reference to 
the Epic of Creation. Among the gods whom Senecherib caused to be 
represented upon a bronze door of the temple of Bit akit seri in the 
scene of the conflict of Asur and Tiamat is Gaga, K. 1356, R. 11 in 
Meissner-Rost, Bauinschriften Sanheribs, p. 100. In the Chicago 
Syllabary, 26, Gaga = Pap-sukkal, i.e. general name of a messenger 
god. But CT. 24, 20, 21 Gaga = Ninsubur, messenger of Anu. He 
is mentioned with Ninurta (MAS) among the seven gods mare napl/i? 

no Tablet III 

3. '^"Ga-ga suk-kal-lum ^ mu-tib ka-bi't-ti-ia 

4. as-ris "'"Lah-mu '^"'La-ha-mu ka-a-ta- lu-us-pur-ka 

5. [si]-te ?-'a-a ' mu-da-a-ta te-is-bu-ra * te-li-'i 

6. ilani abe-ia su-bi-ka ana ma-ah-ri-ia* 

7. //-bu-ku-nim-ma ilani ^ na-gab'-su-nu 

8. li-sa-nu lis-ku-nu ina ki-ri-e-ti lu-us-bu * 

9. as-na-an li-ku-lu lip-ti-ku ku-ru-na ^ 

10. a-na ''"Marduk " mu-tir ^^ gri-mil-li-su-nu li-si-mu 

sim-tum '^ 

11. 'i-ir a-Hk ''"Ga-ga ku-ud-nii"-su-nu i-zi-iz"-ma 

1 2. \id\ ^* a-zak-ka-ru-ka su-un-na-a a-na sa-a-su-un 

13. An-sar ma-ru-ku-nu " li-ma-'-i-ra-an-ni 

1 4. [te-rit] libbi-su u-sa-as-bi-ra-an-ni ia-a-ti " 

15. [um-mu Ti-]amat a-lit-ta-nu '^ i-zi-ir-ra-an-na-a-ti '^ 

16. [pu-uh-ra sit-ku-]na-at"-ma ag-gis lab-bat 

1 7. is-hu-ru-sim-ma ilani gi-mir-su-un 

18. a-di ^^ sa at-tu-nu tab-na-a i-da-sa al-ka 

(diimu-mei-zi, Tammuzes?), KAV. 42 I 14. He is mentioned in a list 
of deities, Shurpu, 8, 15, more or less closely associated with Nergal and 
Ninurta, and in the inscription of Senecherib cited above he is again 
associated with Ninurta and similar types (Sarur, Sargaz). The divine 
name Gaga in N. Pra. is rather Gaga — ISIinkarrak, the mother goddess, 
CT. 25, 3, 55. 

' So CT. 13, 7, 3; KAR. 173, LUff. ' KAR. 173, -h. 

' Cf. IV R. 12, 12, si-te--a mudH. * K. 3473, -ru. 

^ King, Cr. ii, P). 25, begins here and has the correct text. K. 3473, 
mah-ri-ka is erroneous. Last sign on KAR. 173 is doubtful. 

■^'k. 3473.^A^-^^- I 

' King, ii, PI. 25, ga-ab. Both Vars. ht-un. " 

' K. 3473, lil-bu. Cf. 1. 133. According to 1. 126 this refers to the 

' King, ii, PI. 25, -Jiu. 

Mission of Gaga 1 1 1 

3. ' O Gaga, messenger that gladdenest my mind, 

4. Unto the place of Lahmu and Lahamu I will send 

5. To seek for thou knowest, thou art able to compre- 

6. Bring the gods my fathers unto me. 

7. And let them bring to me the gods — all of them. 

8. Let them converse, at a banquet may they sit 

9. May they eat bread and prepare wine. 

10. For Marduk their avenger let them decree fate. 

11. Hasten, go, Gaga, and stand thou before them. 

12. That which I tell thee repeat unto them ; 

13. " Ansar your son sent me. 

14. He caused me to comprehend the purpose of his 

15. Mother Tiamat our procreaturess cursed us.-" 

16. She has assembled a host, angrily raging. 

1 7. They turned away unto her, the gods — all of them, 

18. Except those whom you created, and they have 
gone to her side. 

"> The Assur text, KAR. 173, has Alur {AN-SAR\ but the Babylonian 
originals obviously read Marduk here. 

" King, ii, PI. 25, -Hr-ri. " K. 3473, -ta. 

'^ K. 3473, kud-me. " Ibid., ziz. 

'^^ King restored mim-mu-u, and he is followed by Dhorme and Ebeling, 
on the authority of Tab. II 10. The traces on KAR. 173 are against 
this reading. 

'" KAR. l^z,ka. " Cf 1. 72. 

'* K. 3473, -ni; zir; st for //'. annati, the accusative, is correct. 
Cf. 1. 74. Here King, ii, PI. 25 ff., which contains only selections, omits 
11. 16-51. 

" Cf. II 12; III 74. 

"" Gaga now repeats Ea's report to Ansar, II 1 1-48. 

" See note on adi, II 14. On the contrary a-di la-a ^^'^Ahir Ti-amat 
i-kam-mu-u, in Meissner-Rost, Bauinschriften Sanheribs, 100, 14, pro- 


112 Tablet III 

19. im-ma az-ru-nim-ma i-du-us-su^ Ti-amat te-bi- 

u-ni ^ 

20. Iz-zu kap-du la sa-ki-pu mu-sa u im-mu " 

21. na-su-u tam-ha-ru ^ na-zar-bu-bu la-ab^-bu 

22. ukkin-na si-it* -ku-nu-ma i-ban-nu-u su-la-a-tum 

23. um-mu Hu-bu-ur pa-ti-ka-at ka-la-mu^ 

24. us-ra-ad-di kak-ku la ma-har-ra ^ it-ta-lad mus-mah 

25. zak-tu-ma si-in-na'' la pa-du-ii an-ta-'-u[m] 

26. im-tu ki-ma da-me ^ zu-mur-su-nu us-ma-al-li 

27. usumgalle na-ad-ru-u-ti pul-ha-a-ti u-sal-bis [ma] 

28. me-lam-me us-tas-sa-a e-lis um-tas-[sil] 

29. a-mir-su-nu sar-ba-ba lis-har-mi-im 

30. zu-mur-su-nu lis-tah-hi-tam-ma la i-ni-'i-u i-rat-su- 


31. us-ziz ba-ds-mu mus-rus-su u '^'''La-ha-[mu] 

32. u-gal-lum uridimmu u akrab-amelu (girtablili) 

33. tj-mi da-ap-ru-ti ^* kulili u ku-sa-rik-[ku] 

34. na-as kakke la pa-di-i la a-di-ru ta-ha-[zi] 

bably means not ' except ', but ' Before A. had bound Tiamat '. Note 
also adina Id i-ra-si, ' Before he obtains (children) ', Bogh.-Keui, i no. 8, 
34. Both particles govern the present tense. 

^ Here begins King, ii, PI. 29. K. 3473 om. su and reads -bu. 

" K. 3473, -ma. 

' K. 3473, -ri and -lab. On the syntax of these permansives see 
Meissner, Assyr. Grammalik, § 51, (1). 

Description of Tiamafs Host 113 

1 9. They have cursed the day, and have gone up to 
the side of Tiamat. 

20. They have raged and plotted, resting not night 
and day. 

21. They have joined battle, fuming and raging. 

22. They have collected forces, making hostility. 

23. Mother Hubur the designer of all things, 

24. Added thereto weapons not to be withstood, and 
gave birth to monstrous serpents. 

25. They have been made sharp of tooth, sparing not 
the fang. 

26. With poison like blood she filled their bodies. 

27. Gruesome monsters she caused to be clothed with 

28. She caused them to bear dreadfulness, she made 
them godlike. 

29. Whosoever beholds them lo ! he is banned with 

30. Their bodies rear up and none restrain their 

3 1 . She established the Viper,'' the Raging-serpent ^" 
and Lahamu, 

32. The Great-lion, ^1 the Gruesome-hound,^^ the 

33. The destructive spirits of wrath, the Fish-man*' 
and the Fish-ram,*^ 

34. Bearers of weapons that spare not, fearless of 

* K. 3473, sit. ^ Ibid., -bur; kat. 

" K. 3473; rad; ka-ak-ki: mah-ri. 

' K. 3473, siti-ni. Cf. II 21. ' Ibid., mi. 

' Hydra; see I 140. " Milky-way. " Leo, see I 141. 

'^ Lupus. " Sagitarius. " Cf. I 142. 

'^ Aquarius. "■ Capricorn. 


114 Tablet III 

35. gap-sa te-ri-tu-sa la ma-har si-na-a-[ma] 

36. ap-pu-un-na-ma es-ten es-ri-tum kima su-a-tu us- 

2,T. i-na ilani bu-uk-ri-sa su-ut is-kun-si [pu-uh-ra] 

38. u-sa-as-ki ''"Kin-gu ina bi-ri-§u-[nu sa-a-su] us-rab- 

[bi-is] > 

39. a-Ii-kut mah-ri pa-an um-ma-ni [mu-'i-ir-ru-tu pu- 


40. [na-]as kakke ^ ti-is-bu-tu ti-[bu-ii a-na-an-ta] 

41. [su-ut] tam-ha-ri ra-ab sik-[ka-tu-tu] 

42. [ip-kid]-ma ka-tus-su u-se-si-[ka-as-su ina kar-ri] 

43. [ad-]di ta-a-ka ina puhur ilani [li-sar-bi-ka] 

44. [ma-]li-kut ilani gi-mir-[su-nu ka-tuk-ka us-mal-li]^ 

45. [lu] sur-ba-ta-ma ha-'i-i*-[ri e-du-ii at-ta] 

46. li-ir-tab-bu-u zik-ru-ka eli kali-su-nu [''"A-nu-uk-ki] 

47. id-din-sum-ma dupsimati i-ra-[tus u-sat-mi-ih] ' 

48. ka-ta kibit-ka la in-nim-na-a li-kun si-it pi-i-ka "^ 

49. in-na-nu '^"Kin-gu su-us-ku-ii li-ku-u e-nu-ti ' 

' Here begins K. 6650, CT. 13, 9. » K. 6650, kakki. 

' K. 6650, gim-ral-su-nu ka-lus-lii. This version, therefore, did not 
regard 1. 44 as part of Tiamat's speech, but its text is more likely a scribal 
error. It continues in the second person in the next line. 

* K. 6650, om. 


Exaltation of Kingu 1 1 5 

35. Prodigious are become her designs, unopposable 
are they. 

36. In all eleven are they and thus she brought them 
into being. 

37. Among the gods her first-born who formed her 

38. She exalted Kingu ; in their midst she magnified 

39. As for those who go before the host, as for those 
who direct the assembly, 

40. To undertake the bearing of arms, to advance to 
the attack, 

41. As to matters of battle, to be mighty in victory, 

42. She entrusted into his hand ; and she caused him 
to sit down in sack-cloth, (saying), 

43. ' I have uttered thy spell ; in the assembly of the 
gods I have magnified thee. 

44. The dominion of the gods, all of them, I put into 
thy hand. 

45. Verily thou hast been exalted; O my husband, 
thou alone. 

46. May thy names be greater than all of the names 
of the Anunnaki.' 

47. She gave him the tablets of fate, she caused them 
to be fastened upon his breast, (saying) : 

48. ' As for thee, thy command is not annulled ; the 
issue of thy mouth is sure.' 

49. And now Kingu who had been exalted, who had 
received Anuship, 

^ Here begins 42285, King, Cr. ii, PI. 30. Ibid., i-ra-tu-ul. K. 6650, 
-lu-ma. Cf. II 43; I 155. 

' 42285, -lu\ Same error as above, 1. 44. Var. Here begins 93017, 
CT. 13, 10. 

' So 42285, where II 45 lias ^'■"A-nu-li. 

H 2 

ii6 Tablet III 

50. an ilani mare-sa ^ si-ma-ta ^ us-ti-sam 

51. ip-su pi-ku-un^ "'"Gibil* li-ni-ih-ha 

52. gasru kit-mu-ra^ ma-ag-sa ri lis-rab-bi-ib 

53. as-pur-ma ''"A-num " ul i-li-'i-a'' ma-har'-sa 

54. ''"Nu-dim-mud i-dur*-ma i-tu-ra ar-kis* 

55. 'i-ir ''"Marduk abkal' ilani ma-ru-ku-un 

56. ma-ha-ris *" Ti-a-wa-ti '" lib^^-ba-su a-ra ub-la 

57. ip-su pi-i-su i-ta-ma-a a-na ia-a-ti 

58. sum-ma-ma a-na-ku mu-tir" gi-mil-li-ku-un 

59. a-kam-me Tam-tam-ma^- li-bal-lat ka-su-un . 

60. suk-na^^-ma pu-uh-ra ^* su-ti^^-ra i-ba-a sim-ti 

61. ina up-su-ukkin-na-ku ^^ mit-ha-ris ha-dis" tis-ba-ma 

62. ip-su pi-ia ki-ma ka'*-tu-nu-ma si-ma-tam " lu-sim- 


63. la ut-tak-kar mim^^mu-u a-ban-nu-ii a-na-ku 

64. ai i-tur "' di in-nin-na-a se-kar sap-ti-ia ^^ 

65. hu-um-ta-nim-ma si-mat-ku-nu ar-his ^' si-ma-su 

66. lil-lik lim-hu-ra -^ na-kar-ku-nu dan-nu 

67. il-lik 


Ga-o^a ur-ha-su u-sar-di-ma 

1 K. 6650, DUMU-DUMU. 93017, tna-ri-e-sa. 
" 42285, //'; 93017, iam and il-ii-[mu'\. 
' K. 3473, nu; 6650, pi-t-ku-nu. 

* BIL-GI; K. 3473; 42285, gCs-BAR. See note on I 160. 

' K. 3473, ina kit-mu-rt; K. 6650, sit-mu-ra, but see King, Cr. 45, 
n. 16. KiiNG, Cr, ii, PI. 26, kit-mu-ni; and li-ra-ab-bi-ib. 

* K. 3473, nu-um; K. 10008, 10, 71am. 

' 42285, omits a and has ha-ar. See for the defeat of Anu, II 72-85. 
King, ii, PI. 26, i-li-i-im. 

* 42285, ar-ki-is. K. 10008, II has diir. King, ii, PI. 26, du-ur. 
The summons to Ea and his defeat were related in II 54-70. 

° K. 3473, ab-kal-lu. '" King, ii, PI. 26, ri-il; Ti-amai; li-ib. 


Defeat of Anu and Ea 1 1 7 

50. For the gods her sons fixed the destinies 

51. ' Open ye your mouths ; verily it shall quench the 

52. He who is strong in conflict may humiliate might.' 

53. I sent Anu but he was not able to withstand her. 

54. Nudimmud feared and turned back. 

55. But Marduk, sage of the gods, your son, came 

56. Against Tiamat his heart has prompted him to 

S"]. Having opened his mouth he says unto me : 

58. ' If I, your avenger, 

59. Bind Tiamat and keep you alive, 

60. Convene the assembly, announce again my fate. 

61. In Upsukkinaku seat yourselves together gladly. 

62. Having opened my mouth may I decree fates 
even as you. 

63. And whatsoever I create shall not be changed. 

64. May the speech of my lips not return and be 
made of no avail." 

65. Hasten ye and fix for him your fates quickly. 

66. May he go and meet your powerful enemy.' 

67. Gaga went, he pursued his way. 

" King, ii, PI. 26, -ri. Here begins the quotation of II 123-9. 

'' K. 3473, Ti-amat-ma; King, ii, PI. 26 and 42285, Ti-amat-am-ma. 

" K. 3473, -na-a. 

" Ibid., ru. King, ii, PI. 26 and 42285, -uh-ru. 

'^ Ibid., PI. 26, -te. 

" K. 3473, ki; King, PI. 26, kam; and mi-ii-ha-ri-ih 

" 42285, di-is and ta-as-ba-ma. " King, ii 27, ka-a-. 

" 42285, turn; lu-U-im. ^° King, ii, PI. 27, mi-im. 

" King, ii, PL 27, tu-ur. " 42285, i. 

" hi-ii., King, ii, PI. 27 ; 42285. 

■* 42285, hur. Here begins 83-1-18, 2116, CT. 13, 12. 

ii8 Tablet III 

68. as-ris '^"Lah-mu u "'''''La-ha-me ^ ilani abe-su^ 

69. US-kin-ma is-sik - kak-ka-ra sa-paP-su-im 

70. ik-mis* iz-ziz'-ma i-zak-kar-su-un 

71. An-sar-ma ma-ri-ku-nu * li-ma-'i-ir-an-ni 

72. te-rit Hb-bi-su u-sa-as-bir'-an-ni ia-a-ti 

"^l- um-ma Ti-amat a-lit-ta-ni i-zir'-ra-an-na-si ' 

74. pu-uh-ra ^^ sit"-ku-na-at-ma ag-gis^^ la-ab"-bat 

75. is-hu-ru-sim-ma ilani gi-mir"-su-un 

76. a-di sa at-tu-nu tab-na-a i-da-sa" al-ku^"^ 

77. im-ma az-ru-nim-ma i-du-us''' Ti-a-ya-ti '' te-bu-ni ^' 

78. iz-zu kap-du la sa-ki-pu mu-si u im-ma *" 

79. na-su-ii tam-ha-ra ^^ na-zar-bu-bu la-ab'^^-bu 

80. um-ki-en-na ^' sit-ku-nu-ma i-ban-nu-u ^^ su-la-a-tum ^^ 

81. um-mu Hu-bur pa-ti-kat -" ka-la-ma 

82. us-rad-di kakka"^ la ma-har -' it-ta-lad mus-mah-i ^' 

%2). zak-tu-ma sin-ni la pa-du-u at-ta-'a-i ^'' 

' King, ii, PI. 27, -ha-mu, 42285; 83-1-18, 2116, ah-hi-e-lu, 

' li-ik, King, ii, PI. 27. 

' ma-har, 42215; King, ii, PI. 27; 83-1-18, 2116. 

* t-hr, K. 3473; \j-h'\-ir, King, ii, PI. 27. ih'r from asdru, give 
heed to, muster. See PSB.\. 1910, 122-3, ^"d cf. Zimmern, Rt. p. 102, 
1. 100. The passage as in Rt. ibid, demands rather the root IB'I. It is 
probable that tjasdru, descend, be inclined (see RA. 19, 142 n. 5), has 
also a ^orm iasaru. Cf. RA. 14, 123, 24. 

^ iz-za-az, King, ii, PL 27; 42285; 83-1-18, 21 16. 

° K. 3473, An-sar ma-ru-; King, ii, PI. 27, ma-ru. Here begins 
K. 8575, CT. 13, 12. 

' bi-ra, 42285; King, ii, PL 28; K. 8575; 83-1-18, 2116. 

' zi-ir, 42285; King, ii, PL 28. ' //', ibid.; -a-ti, 42285. 


Recitation of Gaga 1 1 9 

68. In the presence of Lahmu and Lahamu the gods 
his fathers, 

69. He kneeled and kissed the ground before them. 

70. He bowed down, he stood up and addressed them 
(saying) : 

71. " Ansar your son sent me. 

72. He caused me to comprehend the purpose of his 

73. Mother Tiamat our procreatress cursed us. 

74. She has assembled a host, angrily raging. 

75. They turned away unto her, the gods — all of them. 

76. Except those whom you created, they have gone 
to her side. 

77. They have cursed the day and have gone up to 
the side of Tiamat. 

78. They have raged and plotted resting not night 
and day. 

79. They have joined battle, fuming and raging. 

80. They have collected forces, making hostility. 

81. Mother Hubur the designer of all things, 

82. Added thereto unopposable weapons, and gave 
birth to monstrous serpents. 

83. They have been made sharp of tooth, sparing not 
the fang. 

'» K. 3473, ni. " si-il, King, ii, PI. 28. 

■» gi-u, 42285. " lab, K. 8575. 

" mi-ir, 42285 ; King, ii 28. Here begins K. 8524. 
'^ i-da-a-su, K. 8575. '" ka, 42285. 

" Here begins 83-1-18, 1868, i-du-us-hi. 

i« Ta-d-ua-ii, K. 8524 and K. 8575 Rev. 8. 13-1-18, 1868, Ti-amai 
and k-bu-u-ni. 

" te-bi-ni\ 42285. ™ mu, 83-1-18, 1868; 42285. 

" r|-,K. 3473; 8575- " &/5, K. 8575. 

" ukkin-na, K. 3473. " 42285, -nu-ma. '^ //, ibid. 

^^ ka-at, 42285, and -mu at end as on 83-1-18, 1868. 

" K. 3473, kakke. ^ mah-ri, 8524 ; 8575. 

-' mtismah- PI. 42285, mus-mah. ^ ta-at-i'-im, 42285. 


Tablet III 

84. im-tu ki-ma da-mi zu-mur-su-nu us-ma-al-li ^ 

85. nhim-galli na-ad-ru-ti pul-ha-a-ti* li-sal-bis-ma 

86. me-lam-me us-tas-sa-a i-lis ' um-tas-sil * 

87. a-mir-su-nu sar-ba-ba li-ih-har-mi-im 

88. zu-mur*-su-nu lis-tah-hi-tam-ma la i-ni-'-u-ni irat- 


89. us-ziz ^ ba-as-mi * ''"musrusse ® u ''"La-ha-mi 

90. fi-galle ur-idimme * u akrab-amelu (girtablili) 

91. dme da-ap-ru-ti kulili u ku-dar-rik-ki 

92. na-as kak-ku " la pa-di-i la a-di-ru ta-ha-zi 

93. gap-sa te-ri-tu-sa la ma-har si-na-ma 

94. ap-pu-na-ma is-ten es-rit ki-ma su-a-tu us-tab-si 

95. ina ^^ ilani bu-uk-ri-sa su-ut is-ku-nii-si pu-uh-ri 

96. u-sa-as-ki '^"Kin-gu ina bi-ri-su-nu sa-a-su us-rab- 


97. a-li-kut" ma-har ^^ pa-an um-ma-ni mu-ir-ru-tu 


98. na-se-e kakki " ti-is-bu-tu te-bu-u a-na-an-tam 

99. su-ut tam-ha-ra^' ra-ab sik-ka-tu-ti 

2 -la, K. 8524. ' K. 8524, e-hl 

^ K. 3473, mir. 

' la, 42285. 

* 42285, h'-i7. 

* K. 3473, Sing, -mu, also Sing, mus-rus-su. Tlie plurals in 93017 
are false. K. 3473, us-ziz. 

Description of Tiamafs Host 1 2 1 

84. With poison like blood she filled their bodies. 

85. Gruesome monsters she caused to be clothed with 

86. She caused them to bear dreadfulness, she made 
them godlike. 

87. Whosoever beholds them, lo ! he is banned with 

88. Their bodies rear up and none restrain their 

89. She established the Viper(s), the Raging-serpent 
and Lahamu(s),^ 

90. The Great-lion(s), the Gruesome-hound(s), and the 

91. The destructive spirits of wrath, the Fish-man 
and the Fish-ram," 

92. Bearers of weapons that spare not, fearless of 

93. Prodigious are become her designs, unopposable 
are they. 

94. In all eleven are they and thus she brought them 
into being. 

95. Among the gods her first-born who formed her 

96. She exalted Kingu ; in their midst she magnified 

97. As for those who go before the host, as for those 
who direct the assembly, 

98. To undertake the bearing of arms, to advance to 
the attack, 

99. As to matters of battle, to be mighty in victory, 

' See 1. 31. ' K. 3473, H-gal-lum and itr-idimmu, correctly. 

' See 1. 32. "> See 1. 33. " K. 3473, kakM. 

" K. 3473, i-na. '' K. 3473, ku-ut ■&'c\A -ri, 

" Ibid., na-as kakki. '^ Ibid., ri. 

122 Tablet III 

lOO. ip-kid-ma ka-tus-su u-se-si-ba-as-su ina kar-ri 

loi. ad-di ta-a-ka ina piihri ilani u-sar-bi-ka 

1 02. ma-li-kut ilani gim-rau-su-nu ka-tuk-ka us-mdl-li 

103. lu-u sur-ba-ta-ma ha-i-ri e-du-ii at-ta 

104. li-ir-tab-bu-u zik-ru-ka eli kali-su-nu ilani rabuti ^ 


105. id-[din-]sum-ma dupsimati [i-ra-tus u-sat-mi-ih] " 

106. ka-ta kibit-ka la in-[nin-na-a li-kun si-it pi-i-ka] 

107. in-na-na '^"Kin-gu su-us-[ku-u li-ku-u ''^"A-nu-ti] ' 

loS. an ilani mare-sa si-[ma-ti us-ti-sam] ^ 

109. ip-su pi-i-ku-nu ''"Gibil '^ [li-ni-ih-ha] || 

no. gasru ina kit-mu-ru ma-[ag-sa-ra lis-rab-bi-ib] 

111. as-pur-ma '^"A-nu-um ul i-[li-'i-a ma-har-sa] 

112. '^"Nu-dim-mud e-dur-[ma i-tu-ra ar-kis] 

113. 'i-ir ''"Marduk ab-kal [ilani ma-ru-ku-un] 

114. ma-ha-ris Ti-amat [lib-ba-su a-ra ub-la] 

115. ip-su pi-i-su [i-ta-ma-a ia-a-ti] 

1 1 6. sum-ma-ma a-na-ku[mu-tir gi-mil-li-ku-un] 

1 1 7. a-kam-me Ti-amat [u-bal-lat ka-su-un] 

118. suk-na-a-ma pu-uh-ru [su-ti-ra i-ba-a sim-ti] 

119. i-na up-su-ukkin-na-ki [mit-ha-ris ha-dis tis-ba- 


> Read AN-GAL-MES. ' Last line on CT. 13, 1 1. 

' Restored from I 156. " Cf. 1. 48. 

Demands of Marduk 


lOO. She entrusted into his hand ; and she caused him 
to sit down in sack-cloth, (saying) : 

loi. 'I uttered thy spell; in assembly of the gods 
I magnified thee. 

102. The dominion of the gods, all of them, I put into 
thy hand. 

103. Verily thou hast been magnified, O my husband, 
thou alone. 

104. May thy names be greater than all of the names 
of the great gods, the Anunnaki.' ^ 

105. She gave him the tablets of fate, she caused 
them to be fastened upon his breast (saying) : 

106. 'As for thee, thy command is not annulled ; the 
issue of thy mouth is sure.' * 

107. And now Kingu who had been exalted, who had 
received Anuship, 

108. For the gods her sons fixed the destinies (saying) ; 

109. ' Open ye your mouths ; verily it shall quench 
the fire-god. 

1 10. He who is strong in conflict may humiliate might.' 

111. I sent Anu but he was not able to withstand her. 

1 1 2. Nudimmud feared and turned back. 

113. But Marduk, sage of the gods, your son, came 

114. Against Tiamat his heart has prompted him to 

115. Having opened his mouth he says unto me : 

116. ' If I your avenger, 

1 1 7. Bind Tiamat and keep you alive, 

1 18. Convene the assembly, announce again my fate. 

119. In Upsukkinaku seat yourselves together gladly. 

Cf.I 158; 1145. 

Cf. II 46 ; III 50. 

124 Tablet III 

1 20. ip-su pi-ia ki-ma ka-[tu-nu-ma si-ma-tam lu-sim- 


121. la ut-tak-kar mim-mu-u a-ban-nu-u [a-na-ku] 

122. ai i-tur di z«-nin-na-a se-kar [sap-tl-ia] 

123. hu-um-ta-nim-ma si-mat-ku-nu ar-his [si-ma-su] 

1 24. lil-lik lim-hu-ra na-kar-ku-nu dan-nu ^ 

125. 25-mu-ma ''"Lah-ha '^ '^'^'La-ha-mu is-su-ii e-li-tum 

126. ''"Igigi nap-har-su-nu i-nu-ku mar-si-is 

127. mi-na-a nak-ra a-di ir-su-ii* si-bi-it te-[mi su- 


128. la ni-i-di ni-i-ni sa Ti-amat' e-p[is-ta-sa] '^ 

129. ik-sa-su-nim-ma i-lak''-[ku-ni] 

130. Hani rabtJti ka-li-su-nu mu-sim-mu simati 

131. i-ru-bu-ma mut-ti-is An-sar im-lu-u [ub-su-ukkin- 


132. in-nis-ku a-hu-u a-hi ina puhri [in-nin-du] » 

133. li-sa-nu is-ku-nu ina ki-ri-e-ti [us-bu]" 

134. as-na-an i-ku-lu ip-ti-ku [ku-ru-na] 

135. si-ri-sa mat-ku u-sa-an-ni ^^ pit-ra-di-su-[un] 

136. si-ik-ru ina sa-te-e ha-ba-su" zu-um-[ru-su-un] 

* Here begins King, ii 28, last section. 

' Also King, ii 28 has Lah-ha. ' Here begins KAR. 173, Rev. 

* For this restoration cf. zibi't temim risi, ' make a decision ', Ungnad, 
VAB. vi 192, 16-17 ; 225, 29 ; 226, 30. 

^ KAR. 117, ni-i-iiu Ti-a-ua-ti. 

^ King's restoration. Ebeling, e-gtr-ri-sa, which is not so likely. 
' KAR. 173, la-[ak\ » Cf. above, 1. 61. 

^ Cf. i 21. Van KAR, 173, aM u ahu ina pu-uh-ri. 
'» Restored from 1. 8. 

" Cf. 1. 9. Lines 134 f. also on K. 10008, 11. 13 f. 
" sanA, metathesis for nasil. 

" hahasu is regarded by all editors of this text as a permansive for 
habsu, but Delitzsch, H.W., 267, expressed doubt concerning the form. 


Assembly of the Gods 125 

120. Having opened my mouth may I decree fates 
even as you. 

121. And whatsoever I create shall not be changed. 

122. May the speech of my lips not return and be 
made of no avail.' 

123. Hasten ye and fix for him your fates quickly. 

124. May he go and meet your powerful enemy." 

125. When Lahha and Lahamu heard this they cried 

126. The totality of the Igigi wailed bitterly ; 

127. "Why have they become hostile until they have 
conceived [this device ?]■* 

128. We knew not of the deed of Tiamat." 

129. They assembled together and departed, 

130. They the great gods all of them deciders of fates. 

131. They entered into the presence of Ansar, and 
filled the [Upsukkinaku]' 

132. They kissed one another and united in assembly. 

133. They conversed together as they were seated at 
the banquet. 

1 34. They ate bread and prepared wine." 

135. The sweet drink put far away their cares. 

136. As they drank liquor their bodies became sati- 

Jensen, K.B. vi 323, cites ttakkadal and Var. nakdat in Zimmern, Rt. 104, 
112, wherefore he regards /;a'i5ffj?/ as equivalent to habbasu. It is difficult 
to find any other explanation unless an adjective habbam = hdbam be 
assumed, conjugated as a verb, habdsu means firstly ' be satisfied, full, 
contented', and secondly 'to rejoice, be glad'. For the original sense 
see beside Jensen, ibid., ''"'Nidaba hi-it-bu-sa-at, 'grain became abun- 
dant', CT. 15, 36, 4. For the secondary meaning see, beside previous 
entries in the lexicons, Imp. hu-bu-u^, rejoice, Bg. Keui, i, PI. 48, 15; 
lu-uh-bu-us, 1. 17. P hi-it-bu-zu tukiinti, ihey rejoice in battle, Zimmern, 
KL., 214 III 16; cf. Ebeling, Quelkn, i 59, 26 ; irdla Bdb-ili hi-it-bu- 
\us . . .], BA. V 310, 29. G. R. Driver suggests another root, Arabic 
hdbdda, pulsate, for this passage, for which cf. hibsu libbi-sa, Harper, 
Letters, 1194 R. 14. 

126 Tablet IV 

137. ma-'-dis e-gu-ii ^ ka-bat-ta-su-un i-te-el-[li] 

138. a-na '^"Marduk^ mu-tir gi-mil-li-su-nu i-sim-mu 


139. id-du-sum-ma pa-rak ru-bu-ii-ti 


1. id-du-sum-ma pa-rak ru-bu-tum 

2. ma-ha-ri-is ab-bi-e-su a-na ma-li-ku-tum ir-me 

3. at-ta-ma kab-ta-ta i-na ilani ra-bu-tum 

4. si-mat-ka la sa-na-an se-kar-ka ''"A-num 

5. '^"Marduk kab-ta-ta i-na ilani ra-bu-tum 

6. si-mat-ka la sa-na-an se-kar-ka ''"A-num 

7. is-tu fi-mi-im-ma la in-nin-na-a ki-bit-ka 

8. su-us-ku-u u su-us-pu-lu si-i lu-u ga-at-ka 

9. lu-u ki-na-at si-it pi-i-ka la sa-ra-ar se-kar-ka 

10. ma-am-ma-an i-na ilani i-tuk-ka la it-ti-ik 

11. za-na-nu-tum ir-sat pa-rak ilani-ma 

' Assyrian possesses at least two roots egit, to be lazy, negligent, VA' 
and murmur, babble, error, sin, HAH murmur, Arabic, hagau, haga, read 
in whispers. For the use of egii, murmur, of ghosts, see Maklu I 41, 
mimtnu kaisapati-ia ippula e-ga-a. Therefore Arabic secondary form 
higd\ Satyr. Dhorme connected e-gu-u in Creal. iii 137 with njJA, cry, 
roar, which is also possible, and cf. RA. 15, 175, 26 (Ishtar) ^a-a-a/ with 
ra'imat (thunders). 

'^ Assur version, KAR. 173, Ansar. 

' The sources for the Fourth Tablet are published in CT. 13, 14-22, 
and a small Assur fragment, VAT. 10898, is utilized by Ebeung, 

Marduk made a great god 127 

137. Much they babbled and their mood was exalted. 

138. For Marduk their avenger they decreed the fate. 

139. (Catch-line). 


1. They founded for him a princely chamber.* 

2. Before his fathers for consultation ^ he took his 

3. " Thou hast become honoured among the great 

4. Thy destiny is unparalleled, thy commandment is 
(like) Ann's. 

5. O Marduk honoured hast thou become among the 
great gods. 

6. Thy destiny is unparalleled, thy commandment is 
(like) Anu's. 

7. From this day shall thy word not be changed. 

8. To exalt and to humble — this is thy power. 

9. Verily the issue of thy mouth is sure, not uncertain 
is thy commandment. 

10. Not one among the gods shall transgress thy 

11. Restoration is the need of the chambers of the 


Weltschopfungslied, p. 6. BM. 93016 = CT. 13, 14-15 is a Babylonian 

* Text of 11. 1-43 on 93016. 

" malikuhim is taken by all editors in a subjective sense, referring to 
Marduk's advice to or dominion over the gods. The view taken in 
the translation above interprets malikiitum as referring to the following 
decree of the assembly of the gods by which he received the rank of one 
of the great deities. 

* The line refers to Marduk as the patron of the upkeep of temples. 
Cf. VII 7 ; VI 88. 

128 Tablet IV 

12. a-sar sa-gi-su-nu lu-ii ku-un as-ru-uk-ka 

13. ''"Marduk at-ta-ma mu-tir-ru gi-mil-li-ni 

14. ni-id-din-ka sar-ru-tum kis-sat kal gim-ri-e-ti 

15. ti-sam-ma i-na pu-hur lu-ii sa-ga-ta^ a-mat-ka 

16. kak-ki-ka ai ib-bal-tu-vi ^ li-ra-i-su na-ki-ri-ka 

17. be-lum sa tak-lu-ka na-pis-ta-su gi-mil-ma 

18. u ilu sa lim-ni-e-ti i-hu-zu tu-bu-uk nap-sat-su 

19. us-zi-zu-ma i-na bl-ri-su-nu lu-ba-su is-ten 

20. a-na ''"Marduk bu-uk-ri-su-nu su-nu iz-zak-ru 

21. si-mat-ka be-lum lu-u mah-ra-at ilani-ma 

22. a-ba-tum u ba-nu-ii ki-bi li-ik-tu-nu 

23. ip-sa* pi-i-ka li-'-a-bit lu-ba-su 

24. tu-ur ki-bi-sum-ma lu-ba-su li-is-lim 

25. ik-bl-ma i-na pi-i-su 'i-a-bit lu-ba-su 

26. i-tu-ur ik-bi-sum-ma lu-ba-su it-tab-ni 

27. ki-ma si-it pi-i-su i-mu-ru ilani ab-bi-e-su 

28. ih-du-u ik-ru-bu ''"Marduk-ma sar-ru ^ 

' For the meaning of sagH, see PSB A. 1 9 1 o, 118, and sa-gi-e-a, my 
sanctuary, Syn. ahrtu, King, Great. App. V 75. See also Meissner, 
MVAG. 1905, 78. 

' For examples of 3rd Fern. Sing, -aia see Delitzsch, Assyr. Gram- 
matik, p. 268. 

" Certainly for ibbaltu. See Del. HW. 175, and dib = na-bal-tu-u. 

Miracle of the Garment 1 29 

12. (And so) thy place has been fixed wherever are 
their shrines.^ 

13. Thou Marduk art our avenger, 

14. We have given thee kingship of universal power 
over the totality of all things. 

1 5. Sit thou in the assembly, verily thy word is become 

16. May thy weapons not flee but may they annihilate 
thy foes. 

17. O lord of him that puts his trust in thee, spare 
thou the life. 

18. And as for the god who has conceived evil, pour 
out his breath of life." 

19. They caused to be placed in their midst a garment, 

20. Saying unto Marduk their first-born : 

21. "Thy fate, O lord, verily has been made equal to 
that of the gods. 

22. Command ' to destroy and to make ' and they shall 
be fulfilled. 

23. Speak thou thy word and let the garment be 

24. Command again and let the garment be whole." 

25. He commanded and at his word the garment was 

26. Again he commanded and the garment was remade. 

27. As the gods his fathers saw the issue of his 

28. They were glad and did homage (saying) " The 
king is Marduk ". 

Syn. ba'ti, RA. 13, 188, 20. Restore Streck, Assurb. 336 R. i, ib-bal- 
tu-u (?). 

* Usually regarded as an imperative with a energeticus. 

° larru is not the predicate of this nominal sentence but the subject ; 
nouns as attributes have the construct or indeterminate case. 

130 Tablet IV 

29. u-us-si-pu-su ""hatta ""kussa u pala-a ^ 

30. id-di-nu-su kak-ku la ma-har-ra da-'-i-pu za-ja-ri 

31. a-lik-ma sa Ti-amat nap-sa-tu-us '"^ pu-ra-'-ma 

32. sa-a-ru da-mi-sa a-na pu-uz-ra-tum li-bil-lu-ni 

33. i-si-mu-ma sa ''"Bel si-ma-tu-us ilani ab-bi-e-su 

34. u-ru-uh su-ul-mu u tas-me-e us-ta-as-bi-tu-us har- 


35. ib-sim ma '^"kasta kak-ka-su u-ad-di* 

36. mul-mul-lum us-tar-ki-ba u-kin-su ma-at-nu* 

37. is-si-ma ""mitta ^ im-na-su u-sa-hi-iz 

38. '^kastam u """-""^is-pa-tum i-du-us-su I-lu-ul ' 

39. is-kun bi-Ir-ku * i-na pa-ni-su 

40. nab-lu ^ mus-tah-mi-tu zu-mur-su um-ta-al-la ^* 

' The paM of Marduk is also referred to in a bilingual hymn to him 
sung in the Nisan festival at Erech ; tamih hattu kippal u pa-la-a, 
' Holder of the sceptre, ring, and palu', Thureau-Dangin, Ritueh 
Accadiem, p. 108, 2. Here palii is represented in Sumerian by bal, and 
is a loan-word. paM as an emblem is certainly derived from 9^^bal = 
pilakku, axe, hatchet ; see SBH. 123, 14, ff'^'^a/ = i-na pala-a (BL. 9, 18). 
For Marduk represented with his palu see Menant, Glyp/igue, ii, p. 60. 

' napiltu perhaps here 'throat'. Cf. Holma, Korperleile, 42. 

' Literally, 'hearing', being heard by a superior, i.e. obtaining what 
one seeks from a god or superior. 

* Root (i')adu, not to be confused with idtl, against Jensen, KB. vi 
346, and Ylvisaker, LSS. V, p. 46 n. 5. The verb yT know, although 
it appears in Assyrian as JJTI, is distinct from mi fix, decree. The latter 
meaning of adu in the I' form is well attested ; see Ungnad, Babylonische 
Brie/e, 294; Streck, Asurb. ii 431. 

" viatnu, Arabic matnun, Heb. matnaiim, Syr. matndlka, hip, hip-sinew, 
sinew, has been shown to mean ' bow-cord ' by Holma, Korperleile, 6 
n. 3, and for mulmuUu, arrow, see in addition to Jensen, KB. vi 328, 
Meissner, OLZ. 1913, 216, on the basis of CT. 15, 43, 10, mulmulU 

Mardiik prepares for Battle 131 

29. They added unto him a sceptre, a throne and 

30. They gave to him the unopposable weapon over- 
whelming the hateful. 

31. " Go and cut off" the breath of life of Tiamat. 

32. May the winds bear away her blood to a secret 

33. The gods his fathers determined the fate of Bel. 

34. They caused him to take up a journey — a way of 
success and attainment.^ 

35. He made ready a bow and decreed it as his 

36. The arrow he caused to ride thereon and the 
bow-cord he fixed. 

37. He lifted the toothed-sickle and grasped it in his 
right hand. 

38. The bow and quiver he hung at his side. 

39. The lightning he set before him. 

40. With a burning flame was his body filled. 

la padM la ^V^^ilpat «'"^//, ' The unsparing ariows of the quiver of Bel '. 
Var. K. 3437, cm. lum and reads u-kin-si . mul-mul-la is said to be the 
weapon of the hand of Marduk in V R. 46(7 26, where the word is not 
to be confused with the name of Pleiades, ""*^ot?//, as Weidner maintains, 
Handbuch, i6g. In this astronomical text = CT. 33, 3, 23 f., the 
constellation 9'^gan-iir is called the weapon of the god A-tnal, for which 
the gloss has 'arrow of Marduk'. Kugler, Sternkunde, Erganziingtn, 
68 ; 176 ; 222, identified the constellation gan-ur or makaddu, maskakkalu, 
i. e. ' harrow star ', with Crux or the Southern Cross. There is a slight 
resemblance to an arrow in the form of Crux and possibly to a harrow 
also. The passage proves that Marduk's arrow was identified with Crux, 
a star in the ' Way of Ea', and if A-mal and not Mar-biti be the true 
reading, this ancient god of Babylon is identical with Marduk. 

* See RA. 12, 78. 1. 13. Var. ibid., mit-la, and see R. 395 Obv. 8, 
King, ii 62. 

' K. 3437, M. » Ibid., NIM-GIR. 

' 79-7-8, 251 (CT. 13, 20), 1. 5, nab-/a. 

" K. 3437, -//, and me for mi. 

I 2 

132 Tablet IV 

41. i-pu-us-ma sa-pa-ra sul-mu-u kir-bi-is tam-tim^ 

42. irbit-tim ^ sare us-te-is-bi-ta ana la a-si-e mim- 

mi-sd ^ 

43. sdtu * iltanu sadfl amurru 

44. i-du-us sa-pa-ra^ us-tak-ri-ba ki-is-ti ^ abi''-su 


45. ib-ni ini-hul-la sira lim-na me-ha-a" a-sam-su-tum 

46. im-tab-tab-ba " im-imin ^^ imsuhhil itn-nu-di-a " 

47. u-se-sa-am"-ma sare" sa ib-nu-ii si-bit-ti-su-un 

48. kir-bis'^ Ti-amat su-ud-lu-hu ti"-bu-u arkP^-su 

49. is-si-ma be-lum a-bu-ba" kakka^^-su raba-a '* 

50. '^"narkabta fi-mu la mah-rP" ga-lit-ta'" ir-kab "^ 

' K. 3437, kir-bil Ti-amat. Here begins VAT. 10898. 

^ ir-bil-li sa-a-ri, K. 3437 + 79-7-8. 251. 

' 93015, mi-im-me-ia. * VAT. 10898, su-u-ti. 

' 93°5i (CT. 13, 20), -ru. " Ibid., a-na \ki-il-ti\ 

' 93016, [a-](J?-. abd in a loose sense, for at any rate in Babylonian 
religion Marduk was the son of Ea. 

' The Var. a-na hlli contains a rare example of ana in a pregnant 
sense, similar to the Hebrew 3 essentiae. Cf. also Th.-Dangin, Rit. Akk. 
65, 33, a-na sa-al-ka, ' as roast meat '. 

' 93051, ia-ar lim-nu me-hu-u. 

" For the seven winds see BE. 31, 17, 11. 93051. im-imin-bi-im and 
im-di-a-nu-[di-a'\ ; VAT. 10898 at the beginning of the line, im- 

" VAT. 10898, om. am; 93051, sa-a-ri. 

'" 93051, le, and ar-ki. VAT. 10898, kir-bi-i^. 

" 93051, bu and kak-ka. Cf. 1. 75. abubu, cyclone, flood-storm, Sum. 
a-ma-rii, a-ma-ru, viar-ru, is employed regularly as an epithet of Idr-ur, 
weapon of Ningirsu-Ninurta and of Innini, see Gudea, St. B V 37 ; 
Cyl. A, X 2 ; Cyl. B, 7, 14 and PBS. x 274, 18. The sdr-ur is an 



Marduk's IVeopons 135 

41. He made a net to enfold the belly of Tiamat. 

42. He caused the four winds to come under control 
that nothing of her might escape, 

43. The south-wind, the north-wind, the east-wind, the 

44. At his side he brought near the net the gift * of 
his father Ann. 

45. He created Imhullu, the evil wind, the Tempest, 
tile Hurricane, 

46. The Fourfold-wind, the Sevenfold-wind, the Devas- 
tating-wind, the Unrivalled-wind. 

47. He caused to come forth the winds which he 
created — the seven of them. 

48. To trouble the inward parts of Tiamat they went 
up behind him. 

49. The lord took up the ' Cyclone ' ^^ his great 

50. He drove the chariot of the storm the unopposable, 
the terrible. 

eagle-headed club on monuments of the later period, symbol of Ninurta- 
Ilbaba, DiH. Per. i, 379, and a kind of spear, Gud. Cyl. A, 22, 20. 
By association with names of weapons amaru = abubu came to mean 
a weapon, more especially the weapon of Ninurta in his combat with 
Tiamat, see SEP. 232, 8-12, later transferred to Marduk in Semitic 
legend. It also means quiver, ^^a-md-ru ■= ispalu, K. 441 1, Rev. 18; 
RTC. 222 II 8; Ishtar mar-ru lu-lu-il-la 'carries in her hand the 
alubu ■=■ ispatu' , SBH. 105, 22. Jensen's theory to account for the 
application of abubu, ' flood-storm ', to a weapon, ' the cyclone ', is 
expounded in KB. vi 332 : 563. He suggested that the original meaning 
of abubit is 'light waves', storm of light rays, and then took on the 
meaning ' rain-storm '. That is probably erroneous. The word abubu 
(amaru) came to mean weapon because the spear or quiver were spoken 
of as the ' cyclone of battle '.' 

" 93051 adds -am. 

'^ See the description of Asur in Meissner-Rost, Bauinschrifttn 
Sanheribs, 98, 7. 

" 93051, ru, ium, ka-ab. For this line cf. II i8i, and Meissnek-Rost, 
ibid., ilia narkabli la rakbu abubu \sa pa-'\ak-du, ' How he rode in a 

134 Tablet IV 

51. is-mid-sim^ -ma ir-bit^ na-as-ma-di ' i-du-us-sa i-lul' 

52. [sa] - la pa-du-u ra-hi-su mu-up-par-su ^ 

^ 8cu^. 

55. [ ]-zi-gis im-[ha]-sa^ ra-as-ba' tu-ku-un-tum 

56. su-me-la " a na '^ a i-pat-/?< en- 

57. na-ah-lap-tP- ap-luh-tP- pul-ha-ti ha-lip-ma 

58. me-lam-mi ra"-sub-ba-[ti a-]pi-ir ra-su-us-su 

59. us-te-sir-ma be-lum [ur-]ha-su li-sar-di-ma 

60. as-ris Ti-amat sa [a^-]gat^* pa-nu-us-su is-kun 

61. i-na sap-ti-[sii ] sarserrP^ u-kal-lu 

62. sam-mi im-ta bul-li-i '" ta-me-ih rit-tus-su 

chariot, liow he was master of the "cyclone"'; description of ASur's 
combat with Tiamat. 

' 93051, sum, IV, du, lu-ul. VAT. 10898, is-mi-is-si. 

' VAT. 10898, sa-ag-gi-su. ' K. 3437, sd. 

* Restored by 10898. Ebeling, Wellschdp/ungslied, p. 86, mentions 
a new fragment, VAT. 10579, which begins here. 

'^ sinnu first Mas. then Fem. PI. ! ?iasd, Prm. Fem. PI. in circumstantial 

" 93°5i>/«»'- 

' a- -ha on VAT. 10579+ 10898. The restoration ardha is made 
by Ebei-Ing, probably not ardha, hasten, but ardhu, consume, eat up. 
On this root see PSBA. 19 14, 28. See also Maklu, i 116, aruh limndti- 
ia, and VI 54, urrihamii ; SBP. 4, 14. 

' Restorations from VAT. 10579. 

' raidbii, blaze, see JRAS. 1921, 573. 

'" VAT. 10579, ^'Z'"- 

" So 10579, but K. 3437, MUff{}) = eli. 

"^ Var. \f.''-^<^iTIG]-UD-DU. The gH-en = kaunakes is the ancient 

53. zak-tu-ti* sin-na-su-nu na-sa-a^ im-ta'' 
6-ay<, 54- a-[ra-]ha^ i-du-u sa-pa-na lam-du a 

Mardiik's Equipment 135 

51. He yoked up for it four span and hitched them 
beside it, 

52. ' The destroyer', ' The Merciless', 'The Stormer', 
' The Swift-pacing ', 

53. Sharp were their teeth, bearing poison ; 

54. They knew how to consume and they learned to 
trample down. 

55. Like they smote, being fiery in battle. 

56. On the left 

57. He was clad in a kaunakes, a panoply of terrible- 

58. With a sheen of ilames was his head clothed. 

59. The lord proceeded swiftly and pursued his way. 

60. Toward the place of Tiamat who was enraged he 
set his face, 

61. Holding in his lips a o{ red paste. 

62. Grasping in his hand the ' Plant of extinguishing 

heavy garment woven to imitate a fleece, see JRAS. 1920, 373. For 
apluhtu, shield, coat of mail, and also javelin or toothed sickle, see 
RA. 12, 79 n. I. The kaunakes serves as a coat of mail in ancient 
warfare, and it is worn by Eannatum and his warriors as represented on 
the Stele of the Vultures. See Heuzey and Thureau-Dangin, Restitution 
mate'rielle de la Stele des Vautours, PI. II. 

" Also CT. 13, 16, 58, probably after otz' read ra-iub. Restored from 
VAT. 10579. 

" Cf. I 43, ug-gu-gat, but there is not space enough for this word. 
VAT. 10579, ta-mi-a-ti la [....] 

'* So restored by Zimmern from K. 10008, 15, in Hommel- Festschrift, 
223. VAT. 10579, [Jap-ye-e-su. The restoration eni, or enam, by 
Zimmern is suggested by H. Schneider, who refers to the importance 
attached to the Horus-eye in Egyptian. This conjecture is not plausible 
in an Assyrian text. The broken text has only IM-DIRIG, which 
may represent urpatu, storm-cloud. 

" Restored from K. 10008, 16, and VAT. 10579, hu-ul-li-\i\, ibid., 

136 Tablet IV 

63. i-na u-mi-su i-dul-lu-su ilani i-dul-lu-su^ 

64. ilani abe-su i-dul-lu-su ilani i-dul-lu-su 

65. it-hi-ma be-lum kab-lu-us ^ '^"'Ti-a-ua-ti i-bar-ri 

66. sa '^"Kin-gu ha-'i-ri-sa i-se-'e-a me-ki-su ' 

67. i-na-at-tal-ma e-si ma-lak''su 

68. sa-pi-ih te-ma-su-ma si-ha-ti ^ ep-sit-su 

69. u ilani ri-su-su a-li-ku i-di-su 

70. i-mu-ru-[ma] kar-da a-sa-ri-du ni-til-su-un i-si 

71. id-di [ta-a-sa]® Ti-amat ul u-ta-ri ki-sad-sa 

72. i-na sap-ti-sa lul-la-a ' u-kal sar-ra-a-ti 

73. [ka]b-ta-[ta as-]ru sa be-lum ilani ti-bu-ka 

74. [as-]ru-us-su-un * ip-hu-ru su-nu as-ruk-ka 

75. [is-si-]ma° be-lum a-bu-ba kakka-su raba-a 

76. \a-7na-ta ana Ti-]amat sa ik-mi-lu ki-a-am is- 


77. [ka-a-ti-ma ra]^''-ba-a-ti e-lis na-sa-ti-[ma] 

^ ddlu, Prt. idul, Prs. iddl, Muss-Arnolt, Lexicon, 247. Naturally 
a derivation from natdlu, see [Delitzsch, King, Dhorme, Ebeling], or 
dalalu, adore, is impossible, see Jensen's protest in KB. vi 334. According 
to ZDMG. 66, 770, the late Hebrew b'Ci, |3?t3 is the cognate. See 
Gesemus-Buhl under ^1D, and Zimmern, Akkadische Fremdivbrter, 7. 
The Assyrian root is tdlu, for which ddlu is a corrupt form. Note that 
1. 69 also defends the view taken here of 1. 63. 

''■ kablus and kirbis (1. 41) are really prepositions, see PSBA. 1909, 113. 

' See note on I 60. 

* malak is taken for mdlaku, way, walk, by King, Ungnad, and 
Dhorme, and as Inf maldku, to counsel, plan, by Jensen. Also 

Marduk challenges the Dragon 137 

63. Then they hastened unto him, the gods hastened 
unto him. 

64. The gods his fathers hastened unto him, the gods 
hastened unto him. 

65. The lord drew nigh peering into the inward parts 
of Tiamat. 

66. He perceived the open jaws of Kingu her husband, 

67. Gazing, and his self-control faltered. 

68. Distracted was his will, disordered became his 

69. And the gods his helpers, they that went beside 

70. Saw the hero, the champion, and faint became 
their sisfht. 

71. Tiamat cast her curse turning not back her neck, 

72. Upon verbose lips maintaining rebellion, (saying) : 
'J2i- ' Thou hast been honoured to the place of lord of 

the gods who rise up for thee. 

74. From their places they have assembled in thy 

75. The lord took up the ' Cyclone ' his great weapon. 

76. Unto Tiamat who raged he thus addressed her : 

77. " As for thee thou art become great, thou hast 
been lifted up on high. 

vialdku, tongue, AJSL. 30, 77 ; ZA. 33, 18, 10 is a possibility, mdlaku, 
way, course, cannot be employed for the act of walking, and only maldkti, 
to counsel, seems to accommodate the verb dd, for which see I 22. 

^ Probably an adjective and a nominal clause. For saM, Adj., see 
Streck, Assurlt. iii 573. 

* Or restore TU, Br. 779(?). Cf. 1. 91. Dhorme supplied ri-ig-ma. 

' Cf. lu-la sa pi-ia, Craig, RT. 8, i o. 

' For the ending il in the sense of islu, see Delitzsch, Assyr. Gram. 
p. 226, and Meissner, Assyr. Gram. p. 62, g. First line on K. 5420, 
C(CT. 13, 21). 

° Cf. 1. 49. " Ebeling restores hir-ba-a-ii. 

138 Tablet IV 

78. [ub-la lib-]ba-ki-ma di-ki a-na-an-[ti] 

79 ^ abe-su-nu i-da- 

80 su-nu ta-zi-ri ^ ri-e 

81. [tu-sa-as-ki "'"Kin-]gu a-na ha-'-i-ru-/?'-wa (?) 

82. [tu-sar-bi par-sa]-su a-na' pa-ra-as (ilu) an-nu-ti 

83- [ep-se-e-ti lim-]ni-'e-ti te-es-['e*-e-ma] 

84. [a-na] ilani abe-e-a li-mut-ta-ki ^ tuk-tin-ni 

85. [lu sa]-an-da-at ^ um-mat-ki lu rit-ku-su su-nu 


86. en-di-im-ma a-na-ku u ka-a-si ^ ni-pu-us sa-as-ma 

87. Ti-amat an-ni-ta i-na se-mi-sa ' 

88. mah-hu-tas ^'' i-te-mi u-sa-an-ni " te-en-sa 

89. is-si-ma Ti-amat sit-mu-ris " e-li-ta 

90. sur-sis ma-al-ma-lis it-ru-ra '^ is-da-a-[sa] *^ 

91. i-man-ni sip-ta it-ta-nam-di ta-a-sa ^^ 

92. u ilani sa tahazi u-sa-a'-lu'* su-nu kakke-su-[un] '"^ 

93. in-nin-du-ma Ti-amat abkal ilani ''"Marduk 

94. sa-as-mes it-tib-bu kit-ru-bu ta-ha-zi-is 

' Jensen, \ilani rise-kila\ and at end i-da-as-fu-ma. Ebeling, i-da-su 
Dhorme, i-da-lah. 

^ K. 5420, zir-ri. 

' For ana with comparative force (= eW) cf. K. 1290, 3, "sukiir zikir- 
sina ana Istdrdli, 'Their name is made more precious than goddesses'. 
askupti biti ana tarbasi isM, ' The hntel was higher than the court ', 
K. 196 IV 14. 

* K. 3437, le-le- e-e-ma. ° K. 5420, ka\ 

' For samddu in this general sense, see Del. //. W. 570 b. Cf. Ungnad. 
VAB. vi 368. 

' 93051 R. 2, su. 

The Dragon defies Marduk 139 

78. Thy heart has prompted thee to summon to 

79 their fathers 

80 their thou hast cursed 

81. Thou hast exalted Kingu unto marriage. 

82. [Thou hast made his decree greater] than the 
decree of Anu. 

83. [Evil deeds] thou seekest and 

84. Against the gods my fathers thou hast established 
thy wickedness. 

85. Let thy host be equipped and let thy weapons be 
girded on. 

86. Stand thou by and let us, me and thee, make 
battle." * 

87. When Tiamat heard this 

88. She became like one in frenzy and her will was 

89. Loudly cried Tiamat like one raging. 

90. Unto her foundations her limbs trembled equally, 

91. As she recited an incantation, and uttered a curse, 

92. And the gods of battle sharpened '^ their weapons. 

93. They clashed — Tiamat and the counsellor of the 

94. They went up to battle, they approached in 

' sasmu in list of words for battle tahazu "sa sdbe, mahdsu sa sdbe, 
lubarum, all explanations for Sumerian sagdudu, SAI. 7773; CT. 12, 
26037-41 =CT. 35, 3, 4. 

' 93051, tna se-me-e-su. '" Ibid., li-il and nu. 

" Ibid., ri-il '^ Ibid., ru, su. " Ibid, su. 

" K. 5420, H-sa-'-a-lu, i.e. Prs. ^^ 93051. kak-ki-su. 

'° selu, be sharp, is certain. Note especially maseldu, whetstone, 
Knudtzon, Amarna Lett, cited by Ebrling, Quellen, ii 62, and selUlu, 
sharpness, KB. i 164, 42; Th.-D., Sargon, 18; ulme seluti, sharp 
javelins, Lehmann-Haupt, .S'//a;«(2j^ shumukin, L* II 17; leltu, blade of 
a sword, Th.-D., Sargon, 99, 393. 

I40 Tablet IV 

95. us-pa-ri-ir-ma be-lum sa-pa-ra-su u-sal-mi^-si 

96. im-huP-lu^ sa-bit ar-ka-ti ■* pa-nu-us-su ^ um-tas-sir 

97. ip-te-ma pi-i-sa Ti-amat a-na la-'-a-ti-su * 

98. im-hul-la us-te-ri-ba a-na la ka-tam sap-ti-su 

99. iz-zu-ti '' s^re kar-sa-sa i-sa-nu-ma 

100. in-ni-haz' lib-ba-sa-ma pa-a-sa us-pal-ki 

1 01. is-suk ^' mul-mul-la'^ ih-te-pi ka-ras-sa 

102. kir-bi-sa u-bat-ti-ka u-sal-lit lib-ba 

103. ik-mi-si-ma nap-sa-tas '^ u-bal-li 

104. sa-lam-sa " id-da-a eli-sa i-za-za'* 

105. ul-tu Ti-amat alik pa-ni i-na-ru 

106. ki-is-ri-sa up-tar-ri-ra pu-hur-sa is-sap-ha 

107. u ilani ri-su-sa a-li-ku i-di-sa 

108. it-tar-ru ip-la-hu u-sah-hi-ru ^^ ar-kat^'-su-un 

' K. 5420, me. ^ So read, CT. 13, 18, 96 for «. 

' K. 5420, la znd pa-fiu-us-sa. 

* Cf. 1. 45 and 1. 48, ii'iu arki-su. 

* K. 5420, sa. la'dlu = la'diii, Virh, late Hebrew Dj;5'. See Meissnek, 
MVAG. 1910, 515. 

° Var. ' for her consuming (him) '. 
' K. 5420, lum. 

* Jensen regards tsdmi as a Prs. in circumstantial clause and the final 
u as 'overhanging u', and compares ukallu, 1. 61, &c. 

' So Delitzsch, Dhorme, Zimmern (?), on analogy of na-an-hu-uz, 
he is obsessed (with pain), IV R. 54, 19. Jensen suggests in-ni-kud 
from tiakddu, be anxious, but offers no translation. Ebeling, in-ni-szl, 
' was lamed ', from eselu. bind, for which meaning see Holma, Pcrsonen- 
namen der Form kuttulu, p. 31, but hardly applicable to the heart. 
A reading innihas from nahdsu, be satiated, would suit the context best, 
but tiakdsu is used only in the sense of ' be satiated with happiness^ 
riches '. 


Marduk slays the Dragon 141 

95. The lord spread out his net and enmeshed her. 

96. The Imhullu, following after, he let loose in her 

97. Tiamat opened her mouth to consume him.^ 

98. He caused Imhullu to enter that she could not 
close her lips. 

99. The raging winds filled ' her belly. 

100. Obsessed was her heart '*• and she extended wide 
her mouth. 

loi. He let loose an arrow, it tore her belly. 

102. It severed her inward parts, it rent asunder the 

103. He bound her and quenched her breath of life. 

104. He cast down her corpse, standing upon her (it). 

105. After he had slain Tiamat the leader, 

106. Her troops" were disseminated, her host was 

107. And the gods, her helpers, who went beside her, 

108. They trembled, they feared, they turned their 

'" i. e. with pain i ?). 

" For nasdku, throw, let fall, cf. ktrbanam izzuk, VAB. v 276, 4 ; 
lisuku-su lirbanu, KAR. 114, 7 and ZA. 31, 116, 25 f. 

" mulmullu, certainly arrow. In a pantomime taken from this poem 
the mulmullu are carried in a quiver {sa '^ts-pai ''^"Bel), CT. 15, 44, 10 f. 

" K. 5420, ius. 

" liid., ia-tam-tal; iz-zi-za (he stood). 79-7-8, 251, Rev. also 

" Here the kuru or troops of Tiamat are first mentioned and distin- 
gfuished from the eleven monsters, the Hani hukri-sa, who formed her 
host, I 146, and below, I. 115. For the meaning of kisru see Manitius, 
ZA. 24, 114 IT. VAT. 10898, ^/'-»;f-ri<-ia. 

'* K. 5420, ra and al-kai-su-un. For r>/ before k cf. birku>bilku, 

RA. 9, 77 n 13. 

" For arkatu, back, see Holma, KorperteiU, 64. 
1* Var. ' They turned back their course', is not likely. See n. 17 for 
alkatu, ' back '. 

142 Tablet IV 

109. u-se-su-ma nap-sa-tus' e-ti-ru 

no. ni-ta^ la-mu-u na-par-su-dis la li-'e-e * 

111. i-sir-'su-nu-ti-ma kakke-su-nu u-sab-bir 

1 1 2. sa-pa-ris ^ na-du-ma ka-ma-ris us-bu 

1 1 3. en-du tiib-ka-a-ti ' ma-lu-ii du-ma-mu 

1 14. se-rit-su * na-su-u ka-lu-u ki-suk-kis 

115. u^" is-ten es-rit nab-ni-ti su-ut pul-ha-ti i-sa-nu" 

116. mi-il-la^^ gal-li-e a-li-ku ka-a[rt'-r?'i /«-]ni-sa 

' The ending I in cases of this kind serves as a determinative ending 
as the 3rd Per. pronoun hu serves as a definite article in Ethiopic, for 1 
both singular and plural. Cf. Brockelmann, Vergleichende Grammatik,  I 
p. 470 )8 and p. 409 k, on the ending itu. l in Assyrian naturally 
represents lu. Nouns ending in s determinate are not to be confused 
■with the adverbial and prepositional forms -is, -us, as in b'r&is, libhus, 
tdus, iduVsti, for the origin of which see PSBA. 1909, no. 

'^ ' They caused (their souls napSiVi-sunu) to come away.' For this 
reflexive use of causative forms see Brockelmann, opus laud. 527. ii 

^ On the expression nita lamii see Streck, Assurb. ii 329 n. 8. VAT. i 
10898, ni-i-ta. 1 

* K, 5420, di-il. leu is usually followed by the infinitive in accusative, 
but here in ace. with s determinative, -is for -ai, by analogy with 
adverbial ending is. 

^ VAT. 10898, -si-ra-lu-nu. ' Ibid., ri-is. 

' Ibid., en-du tu-[ub . . .]. tubkatu certainly same root as lubktnu, 
tubkitlu, cave, secret chamber (I 64), from Arab, labak, cover, obscure. 
Note Sum. ub = tubku, ' chamber of the earth, region, and luttatu, Sec. 
cave, cavern; see Sum. Gr. 250. For this passage cf. tubkati e-mid, 
KB. vi 298, 22. 

' VAT. 10898; se-ri-is-su. 

* Lines 106-14 describe the troops of Tiamat who were bound and 
imprisoned. These seem to be referred to in the fragmentary poem, 
published by Pinches, PSBA. 1908, 80-2, and cf. my BE. 31, 35 and 
ZiMMERN, Zum Babylonischen Neujahrs/esl"-, 49. Here they are called 

The Host of Ttantat captured 143 

1 09. They sought to extricate themselves - that they 
might save (their souls). 

no. They were encircled by restraint so that it was 
not possible to flee. 

111. He bound them and broke their weapons. 

112. Into a net were they thrown and in the snare 
they sat down. 

113. They stood in secret chambers, being filled with 

1 14. They bore his punishment being bound in prison." 

1 15. And the eleven creatures whom she had equipped 
with terribleness, 

116. The host of demons who went impetuously defoi'e 

the ildni sablulu, ' The captured gods ', the seven sons of Enmesana 
who are set free by Nergal, but Marduk again threatens to afflict them. 
ZiMMERN also refers to a passage SBH. 146, 42, where Enmesana 
himself was bound and wept for by Gula. The seven children of 
Enmesarra, god of the lower world and of vegetation are also lower 
world deities (see RA. 16, 151 f.). They are referred to in CT. 17, 37, i 
as tldm kamiiti iltu kabrim itdiuni, ' The bound gods who ascend from 
the grave'. And again in a ritual IV R. 21* a 16 they are referred to 
in this way; ana ^^^Ningiszida . . . Hani kamiltu h'l-/i {?)-ku {?). Ningis- 
zida, a deity of vegetation, also belongs to the underworld pantheon. 
These deities of the underworld, who were originally followers of Tiamat, 
were bound and cast into Arallfi by Marduk, or in the original version 
by Ninurta. They are also called asakku, or the seven asakkt viar 
^■Anim kiliUi ^-Ninurta, sons of Anu and conquest of Ninurta, KAR. 
142 II 9 f . Their names as pest demons (asakku, see Sian. Gr. 204) 
were given, ibid. I 39-41 ; III R. 69, no. 3 gives their number as 
nine. Their names as pest demons are, of course, different from their 
names as sons of Enmesarra and patrons of vegetation. In Tablet 
VII 27 Marduk is said to have had mercy upon these bound gods of the 
underworld, and to have created mankind out of compassion for them. 
This meaning of the place of mankind in the divine order probably refers 
to the land of the dead to which men finally pass and become the 
subjects of the gods of the lower world. 

" VAT. 10898 omits u. " K. 3437, sa-[jiu\, Prm. PI. 

" VAT. 10898 has SAB-ni =■ ummdni, host. But CT. 13, 15, i, 

144 Tablet IV 

117. it-ta-ad'-di sir-ri-e-ti i-di-su-nu 

1 1 8. ga-du tuk-ma-ti-su-nu sa-pal-su [ik]-bu-us ^ 

119. u ''"Kin-gu sa ir-tab-bu-u ^ ina [3?Vz] *-su-un 

120. ik-mi-su-ma it-ti ''^"Digge-e su-a-[ti] im-ni-su 

121. i-kim-su-ma dupsimati [la si-ma]-ti-su ® 

122. i-na ki-sib-bi ' ik-nu-kam-ma ir-tu-us^ it-mu-uh 

123. is-tu lim-ni-su ik-mu-ii i-sa-du 

1 24. ai-bu * mut-ta-'i-du * u-sa-bu-u su-ri-sam ' 

125. ir-nit-ti An-sar e-li" na-ki-ru'° ka-li-is us-zi-zu 

1 26. ni-is-mat " '^"Nu-dim-mud ik-su-du "'"Marduk 


127. e-li ilani ka-mu-tum '- si-bit-ta-su u-dan-nin-ma 

gal-ld-mel, i. e. galle; millu was omitted on this text. Zimmern translated 
the word by host, troop, and his suggestion is confirmed by the new 

' K. 3437 omits. First line on Rm. 2, 83 (CT. 13, 19). 

- On 93016. ' Rm. 2, 83, ir-ta-bu-u. 

* King, e-li, but on CT. 13, 21 the sign may be bi. Cf. I 147. 

5 tiujfig.g^— Diggil, Semiticized. Digga is a name of Nergal, and hence 
Kingu was also counted among the bound gods in Arallu. For '^■Dig-ga 
see PBS. x 130, 37 and '^^Dig-ga, CT. 26, 42 II 14, star of Nergal. 
In a ritual, RA. 16, 154, <*-Kin-gu-gu is identified with the original deity 
of the under-world, Enmesarra = Enlil, and is one of the seven Enlils 
or under-world gods (kisitti) ' of conquest ', i. e. captured by Ninurta- 
Marduk. In a mystic pantomime, CT. 15, 44, 8-9, a sheep which is 
burned in fire represents Kingu who had been burned. See Zimmern, 
Neujahrsfest^, p. 131. Hence a legend concerning the burning of Kingu 
existed, and Zimmern believes that the vision of the burning of one of the 
four beasts which represents the heathendom in Daniel 7, 11, and the 
casting of the devil into a lake of fire in the Apocalypse of St. John 20, 
10, are based upon this form of the legend of Kingu. 


Marduk binds the Dragons 145 

1 1 7. He laid cords upon their hand(s) he 

1 18. Them together with their opposition he trampled 
under foot. 

119. And Kingu who had become chief among them 

120. He bound and he counted him with the god 

121. He took from him the tablets of fate which were 
not his rightful possession. 

122. He sealed them with a seal and fastened them to 
his breast. 

123. After he had bound his foes or had slain them, 

124. And had overpowered the arrogant foe like a 

125. And had fully established the victory of Ansar 
over the foes, 

126. And had attained the desire of Nudimmud — he 
the valiant Marduk, 

127. Upon the bound gods he strengthened his 

' Rm. 2, 83, la si-ynal-lsti]. ' VAT. 10898, ba. Rm. 2, 83, ir-tus. 

' Rm. 2, 83, ai-bi miit-ta-du. 

' usabu, here taken for IP of sabit, overpower, is usually read ii-la-pu-d 
by other editors, III' of apH, but iHpil cannot be used in a factitive sense 
' to make into '. Dhorme reads katrtsam ' il [les] fit en battus ', but where 
does /:a/ru have this sense f and his rendering of M/?? is not possible. 
Also Ebeling commits the same error with his reading usapii-hi ri-sam, 
' he made them into slaves '. muttdidu naturally P Part, of naadu, 
boast, praise, sunlam might be from sHru, wind, tiiru, bull, silru, 
harvested reed, or perhaps surnsam, quickly. 

'» Rm. 2, 83, eli, ri. Cf. Tab. I 74. 

" The root meaning of fiismatu can perhaps be determined from the 
Sumerian equivalent hir-zid-da, CT. 21, 50, 15, kur-zid, CT. 15, 11, 6, 
Var. kur-zi{d), KL. 2 R. 28. This word contains apparently the root 
zid>zt ^Tiapislu, breath. A variant is na-si-mal {ilitti-ka), BA. V 673, 
1 2. Despite the violation of the rule of sibilants nismatu and ni-\Js-mu ?] 
PSBA. 1910, 20, 20, appears to be the cognate of Arabic nasamun, 
breath, soul, Hebrew neidmd. See SEP. 198 n. 5. 

'^ Rm. 2, 83, ka-mu-H-ti. Cf. ud-dan-nin mar-kas-si-hi-iiu, BE. 31, 

iS8T K 

146 Tablet IV 

128. si-ri-is Ti-amat^ sa ik-mu-u i-tu-ra ar-ki-is 

129. ik-bu-us-ma be-lum sa ti-a-ma-tum i-sid-sa 

1 30. i-na mi-ti-su la pa-di-i u-nat-ti ^ mu-uh-ha 

131. u-par-ri-'i-ma us-la-at da-mi-sa 

132. sa-a-ru il-ta-nu a-na pu-uz-rat us-ta-bil 

133. i-mu-ru-ma ab-bu-su ih-du-u i-ri-su 

134. igisi-e sul-ma-nu li-sa-bi-lu su-nu a-na sa-a-su 

135. i-nu-uh-ma be-lum sa-lam-tu-us i-bar-ri 

136. sir ku-pu* u-za-a-zu i-ban-na-a nik-la-a-ti 

137. ih-pi-si-ma ki-ma nu-nu mas-di-e a-na sina-su 

138. mi-is-lu-us-sa is-ku-nam-ma sa-ma-ma u-sa-al-lil 

139. is-du-ud par-ku ma-as-sa-ru u-sa-as-bi-It. 

140. me-e-sa la su-sa-a su-nu-ti um-ta-'i-ir 

141. sami-e i-bi-ir ' is-ra-tum i-hi-tam-ma 

142. us-tam-hi-ir mi-ih-rat * apsJ su-bat ''"Nu-dim-mud. 

35 n. 4, I. Here the 'bound gods' include the kisru (106) who were 
cast into the lower world and became the sons of Enmesarra and the 
pest demons (asakke^, as well as the eleven monsters who were chained 
to the stars. For the constellations to which these monsters were bound 
see Tab. I 140-2. In a hymn to Marduk, Craig, RT. 29, 15-17, 
which refers to these constellations with a few variant readings, the list 
ends u-za-iz-su-nu-ii, ' he apportioned them ', i. e. assigned them to 

' Rm. 2, 83, Ti-d-ua-ti. 

" A reading u-lat-ti also possible, but less probable, from /<?//?, break, 
crush, Sum. dar, iar, Syl. C, 65; CT. 18, 32019-21; 12, 509; 12, 
15 £45. See on this root. Tab. I 134. 

^ Tiamat's blood is taken to the far south, wherefore Jensen suggests 
that the legend may be connected with the origin of the name ' Red Sea ', 
originally applied by the Greeks to the Arabian Ocean and the Persian Gulf. 

upper and Lozvcr Firmament Created 147 

128. Unto Tiamat whom he had bound he returned 

129. The lord trod upon her hinder part, 

130. With his toothed sickle he split (her) scalp. 

131. He severed the arteries of her blood. 

132. The north-wind carried it away unto hidden 

133. His fathers saw and were glad shouting for joy. 

134. Gifts and presents they caused to be brought 
unto him. 

135. The lord rested beholding the cadaver, 

136. As he divided the monster, devising cunning 

137. He split her into two parts, like an oyster.^ 

138. Half of her he set up and made the heavens as 
a covering. 

139. He slid the bolt and caused watchmen to be 

140. He directed them not to let her* waters come forth. 

141. He explored the heavens, he paced the spaces. 

142. He set over against (the heavens) the abode of 
Nudimmud on the face of the Deep. 

* ^"Mpu, loan-word; see Thureau-Dangin, RA. 19, 81, and Holma, 
Korperieile, p. 2. 

' nunu masdil, ' The closed fish ', probably mussel-fish or oyster, 

ZiMMERN, OLZ. 191 7, 104. 

' sa is taken by King and Ungnad to refer to Tiamat. Dhorme takes 
lamama as the antecedent, but samdmu is probably of masculine gender. 

' The word may be taken from eberu, to cross, eberu, bind, or bdru, 
examine, see. For ebiru, bind, cf. Marduk e-bir sami-e sdpiku irsi-tim, 
' who secures the heavens and heaps up the earth ' ; and Zarpanit e-bi-rat 
sami-e Idpika-at irsi-tim, Th.-D. Ritueh, 134, 240 : 254. A verb bdru = 
bard is well authenticated, and for its use as a synonym of Mlu, 
pace across, guard, examine (Streck, Bab. ii 56 fF.), see Winckler, For. 
ii 40, 28, a-hi-it a-bi-ir-ma. It is difficult to decide concerning these 
alternatives. See Book VII 109. 

' Same expression for the foundation of a temple on the water-level 
or 'face of Apsu', VAB. iv 86 ii 18. hcbat \Nudimmud\ in apposition 

K 2 

148 Tablet V 

143. im-su-uh-ma be-lum sa apsi bi-nu-tu-us-su 

144. 6s-gal-la tam-si-la-su u-ki-in E-sar-ra * 

145. [es-gal-la E-sar-ra sa ib-nu-u sa-ma-mu] 

146. ''"A-nim '^"En-lil u '^"£-a ma-ha-zi-su-un us- 



146 — am sumati duppu ^-kam-ma e-nu-ma e-lis la 

ki-l pi-i '^"li-u-um sa a-na pi-i sa-ta-ri su-ul-lu-pu 
sat-ru ""Nabu-bel-sLi [mar®] Na'id-Marduk apil amel 

nappahi ana balat napsati-su 
u balat (?) ° biti-su is-tur-ma ina E-zi-da u-kfn 

I. u-ba-as-sim ma-an"-za-za an ilani ra-bi-ii-tum 

with apsu, King, Creal. i 199, 24, but here rather the object of the verb. 
In defence of my rendering of the passage Tab. I 7 i should be com- 

' Esarra = bil kishili, KAR. 122, 5 ; ' House of the universe ', a name 
for the earth and Syn. of Ekur. Cf. II R. 59, 21. ''■Sahan rabis £-sdr- 
ra, with Var. CT. 24, 8, 11, E-kur (1. 15). As name of part of the 
temple Ekur at Nippur, see SBP. 221 n. 7. 

' All editors render ' as or like heaven ', but that conveys no meaning, 
and there is no word for as or like here. Or if lamamu be taken in apposi- 
tion with Esarra, i. e. ' E. which he built as (a canopy of) heaven ', the 
interpretation violates the meaning of Esarra = earth. Since in the late 
period Esarra was also the name of a part of Eanna, temple of Anu 
in Erech, Th.-D. Ritueh, "ii Rev. 2, and a temple in Erech, centre of 
the cult of Anu, was also called ^^'es-gal, the line appears to be a late 
gloss to explain esgal not as earth but as heaven, or a title of an Anu 

' i. e. Samamu, Es arra, and Apsu, the abodes of Anu, Enlil, and Ea 

Nether Sea Created 149 

143. The lord measured the dimension of Apsu. 

144. A vast abode its counterpart he fixed — even 

145. [The vast abode Esarra which he built is heaven]." 

146. He caused Anu, Enlil and Ea to occupy their 
abodes ' 

146 h'nes. Tablet 4 oi Eimtiia elis : not finished. 

According to a tablet which was damaged in its text. 

Writing of Nabubelshu [son] of Na'id-Marduk the 
smith. For the life of his soul 

and for the life of his house he wrote it and put it in 

I. He constructed stations for the great gods.' 

* From 93015. ^ The sign TUR = inaru is omitted. 

* Text zi-hi\ error for zi-din. 

' Text from catch-line of 93016; K. 3567 (CT. 13, 22) has gal-gal 
for rabiiti; K. 8526 (CT. 13, 23) gal-mes. Bezold in Boll's Antike 
Bcobachlungen reads manzdzdn Hani. 

' The word manzazu, station, when used of the planets has the same 
meaning as the Greek v\j/w/jia, ' exaltation ', that is the sign of the zodiac 
in which any given planet was supposed to be most influential upon 
nature and the affairs of mankind. The Babylonian ' stations ' appear 
to have been fixed arbitrarily, and as such they were borrowed by 
the Greeks. The word bf/u, ' house ', seems to have been used in 
the same sense, see Weidner, OLZ. 191 2, 115, where M ^-Dilbat, or 
' House of Venus ' apparently = kakkuru bit ri-\ik-si n{inf\, ' Region 
of the house of the Band of Pisces', and the Hypsoma of Venus was 
Pisces in Babylonian and Greek astrology. But b/Zu usually means- 
simply ' sign of the zodiac '. In Greek astrology the ' Houses ' of the= 
planets are entirely different from the Hypsomata. Weidner, OLZ. 
191 3, 208, commenting upon the text in King, Great, ii, PI. 69, has 

I50 Tablet V 

2. kakkabani tam-sil-su-;i« lu-ma-si us-zi-iz 

convincingly proven that kakkar ninrtum, or ' sign of the mystery ' of the 
moon corresponds to the constellations Sugi (Perseus) and Mul-mul 
(Taurus), and the Hypsoma of the moon in Greek astrology was also 
Taurus. The same text gives the constellation Kii-Mal (Aries) as the 
'sign of mystery' of the sun, which also agrees with the Greek Hypsoma 
of the sun. The same text gave the Hypsoma of Mars as Enzu (?) 
(Capricorn), which is also the Greek Hypsoma. [The remaining argu- 
ment of Weidner based upon Harper, Letters, 519, is erroneous.] 
Herzfeld, OLZ, 1919, 213, cites the Arabic system of the Hypsomata, 
taken from pillars of a bridge at Djazirat ibn 'Omar on the Tigris, north 
of Mosul. These agree with the Greek scheme with the exception of 
the sign for the sun's Hypsoma, which is here given as Leo (the House 
of the sun in Greek astrology). On the basis of this information it may 
be assumed that the Babylonian system was the source of all the ancient 
theories of 'exaltations', 'signs of mystery', or in Arabic the sdra/un, 
' top '. The Hypsoma of Jupiter can be fixed by Thompson, Reports, 
no. 187. Here the astronomer states that Jupiter arose heliacally before 
the sign Al-lul (Cancer), and later in his report he says that 'Jupiter 
appeared I'na manzazi-hc kini, in his true or faithful station ', and since 
Cancer was the Hypsoma of Jupiter, obviously manzazu k'lnu means the 
station in which a planet was most powerful with respect to divination. 
For vianzazu used in the sense of Hypsoma note also Virolleaud, 
Ishtar, V 4, Venus a-hi-is manzaz-su ulallam-ma izzaz-nia, completes her 
station to the border and stands still, i.e. Venus passed through her 
Hypsoma (Pisces) and halted to turn backward. Venus manzaz-za 
ukut, ' established her station ', i. e. stood in her Hypsoma and revealed 
true oracles, Thomfson, Reports, 206, 5. Venus in the month Ajar 
manzaz-za ul-ta-na-ki, • attains her station ', Virolleaud, Astrol. Suppl? 
xlix. 35. This is probably the meaning of manzazu in Thompson, 
Reports, 176, i, 'If the sun stands ina vianzazi '^"Si'n, in the Hypsoma 
of the moon, i. e. Taurus '. For the full term manzazu kinti = Hypsoma, 
see ibid. 27, R. 6; 37, R. 3; 87 A, 2-I-R. 3. Cf. CT. 34, 10, 19, 
Jupiter vianzaz-su us-sa-lim 15 iime maliiti izziz, 'completed his station 
and stood 1 5 full (?) days '. Certainly ' station ' in Babylonian does not 
have the meaning of o-r);piy/ids, ' standing still ', of Greek astronomy, 
i. e. the point of the apparent turning backward or forward of a planet. 
For this idea Babylonian employs the noun turu or the verb tdru. See 
Jastrow, Religion, ii 656 n. 6 after Kugler. The Hypsoma of Venus 
is proved to be Pisces by Vir. Ishtar, ii 73 f., where she stood ina 
jnanzazi-la = ina ''"^'^Dilgan. See Weidner, H. B. 159. 

The word manzazu when applied to the moon usually has the meaning 

Astrondmical Poem 151 

2. The stars their likenesses he fixed, even the 

of station in the sense of one of the stellar sectors assigned to each 
day of the moon's course ; so the astronomers speak of his ' first station ', 
ViROLLEAUD, AstroL, Sin. iii 66. These stations of the moon are called 
Houses in Sumerian astronomy as early as the twenty-fifth century. So, 
for example, we find sacrifices to the eud- 15, ' House of the fifteenth day ', 
CT. 32, 26 II 15; Legrain, Ur, in, 3, and for the / ud-sar, 'House 
of the new moon', 1. 10. In some texts of the Sumerian period the 
moon's stations are called si^gigir, or the ' Wagon '. So we find 
sacrifices to the Wagon of the sixth and eighth days, PSBA. 1918, PI. IV. 

In the creation of the world Marduk now proceeds to the construction 
of the constellations, and the positions of the Hypsomata are regarded 
as of first importance, which proves the great influence of astrology in 
the period of the composition of the Epic. From the Greek the entire 
seven stations here referred to may be restored : Libra station of Saturn, 
Cancer of Jupiter, Capricorn of Mars, Aries of Shamash, Taurus of Sin, 
Pisces of Venus, Virgo of Mercury. For a full discussion of the 
Hypsomata, Houses, and Stations of Greek astrology see Bouche- 
Leclercq, L' Astrologie grecque (1899), i8o ff"., 192 ff. 

A Babylonian representation of the Moon in his ' station ' in Taurus 
and of Jupiter in his ' station ' in Cancer to the west of Leo may be seen 
in Jeremias, Handbucli, 247. 

' lu-ma-si or udu-ma-si, loan-word lu(iidu)-7nahi (CT. 26, 41 V 17), 
designates the constellations Perseus (Sugi), Cygnus (Udkadua), Orion 
(Sibzianna), Canis Major (Kaksidi), Centaurus (Entena-maslum), Aquila 
(NaSru), Sagittarius (Pabilsag), and are spoken of as the 'seven lumasi' , 
CT. 26, 45, 7-10. But in KuGLER, Babyl. Mondrechnung, p. 72, the 
lu-mal-mes designate the signs of the zodiac through which the sun 
proceeds (^i = feiit) on his course, or they mark the path of the moon 
(ina kabal lu-mas gabbi), ibid. 146. The word, therefore, was extended 
to mean ' constellations ' in general, each of which was identified with 
a deity, and that is apparently the sense of the loan-word lumasi in the 
passage above. 'Boi.i.jAtilike Beobachtungen, Abh. der Kgl. Bay. Akademie, 
vol. 30, p. 149, believes that the seven lumasi were selected on the 
principle of the resemblance of their colour to that of Jupiter (planet 
of Marduk). Bezold in Boll's Ariiike Beobachtungen, 154, says that the 
sign after su is not NU but MUL, and he reads tam-lil-lu ™''^Uu-ma-si, 
i.e. the seven lumasi are his likenesses, or the likenesses of Jupiter = 
Marduk, which interpretation supports Boll's theory of the connexion 
between Jupiter and these constellations. Unfortunately the traces da 
not support the reading MUL. (New collation by Mr. Gadd.) 

152 Tablet V 

3. u-ad-di satta mi-Is-ra-ta u-ma-as-sir ^ 

4. 12 arhe kakkabani 3-ta-dm * uS-zi-iz 

,' K. 8526, u-at-st'r. ' Root wadu, not //<//?. 

' misrti, PI. ?iii-is-ral (Messerschmidt, KTA. 17, 15), and viisriii, 
boundary, is probably derived from eseru, to confine, Arabic hasara. 
The word misrata in this passage is a hapax, whose singular may be 
misrti, misirtu, design, sign of the zodiac, and certainly identical in 
meaning with usurlu, sign of the zodiac, Sum. S'^HAjR-RA. 1 1, 145, 24 ; 
A-aA-;co6,^j.„;./,^_ constellation, Virolleaud, Aslrologic, Sin. iii 137; Thomp- 
son, Reports, 114, 8. For the unusual plural in dta for ait cf. mindla, 
KAR. 175, 10. 

 For lam, distributive, see Sum. Gr. § 177. This passage is uni- 
versally regarded by Assyriologists as referring to the so-called astrolabes 
of the Babylonians, which divide the heavens into twelve sectors, each 
of which corresponds to a month of thirty days and an arc of thirty 
degrees of the sun's course. For each month the astrolabes assign three 
stars which were at first interpreted as based upon their order of heliacal 
risings, being so chosen that they rose heliacally at regular intervals of 
,ten days, the whole system beginning with a star in Cetus (Dilgan) 
, jwhich rose about the first of Nisan and governed the first ten days of the 
^first month. This was the view elaborately worked out by Kugler in 
his Stertikwide, i 230 ff., where he assigned the astrolabes to a late period, 
and determined the heliacal risings of the thiity-six stars or the so-called 
decans of Greek astronomy, and identified many of them with their 
classical equivalents. But in his £rganzungen, 201-6, Kugler withdrew 
his astronomical interpretations of the decans and substituted a purely 
astrological theory, making no reference to the puzzling figures which 
foUovv each of the three stars for each month in geometrical progression. 
Kugler here interprets the well-known names of constellations as 
designations of planets. The astrolabes are well described by Weidner 
in his Handbuch der Babyloiiischcn Asironomie, 62 if., where he contributes 
a new astrolabe in the Berlin INIuseum, now published by Schroeder in 
KAV. no. 218. This text assigns the first star of each month to the 
Ea stars, or in other texts the ' Way of Ea ', the second star of each 
month to the Anu stars or ' Way of Anu ', and the third star of 
each month to the Enlil stars or ' Way of Enlil '. Weidner violently 
rearranges the three stars of each month so as to correspond to the three 
lists of twelve stars each which correspond respectively to the twelve stars 
of Amurru, the twelve of Elam, and the twelve of AkUad. He assumes 
that the stars ot the first decan of each month or the outer ring of the 
astrolabes (see CT. 33, 11-12) should correspond to the twelve stars 

Astronomical Poem 153 

3. He fixed ^ the year and designed the signs (of the 

4. For the twelve months he placed three stars each. 

assigned by the astrologers to Amurru, the stars of the second decan of 
each month should be the twelve stars of Elani, or the ' Way of Anu ', 
and the stars of the third decan of each month should be the twelve stars 
of Akkad or the ' Way of Enlil '. 

It is obvious from the names of the constellations which are assigned 
to each section of the months that the signs are not chosen from the 
zodiac exclusively as in the Egyptian and Greek system of decans, but 
include signs of the so-called TrapavarlKkovTa or stars outside the zodiac 
which rise heliacally at the times of the months to which they are 
assigned, or if we accept the thesis of Lindl, Orientalische Studim Friiz 
Hovimel . . . ge'juiJmet, ii 346 ff., the three constellations of each month 
belong to three concentric spheres. All rise heliacally in that particular 
month, and are arranged in order of distance from the earth. Weidner 
also assumes the principle of three concentric spheres, and explains the 
figures after each decan as distances in right ascension along the celestial 
equator, and with his drastic rearrangement he is able to prove that the 
thirty-six stars of the astrolabes rise heliacally in order each approximately 
ten days after the other, so that the three stars of each month are real 
' time regulators ' {xpovoKpanop). A passage in Diodorus often cited by 
writers on the subject (see Weidner, Handbuch, 63; Boll, Sphaera, 335) 
states that the Babylonians assigned thirty (read thirty-six) stars to govern 
the course of the planets, and that every ten days one of those visible 
descends as messenger to those invisible (sets heliacally) and one of 
those invisible ascends as messenger to those visible (rises heliacally), 
which appears to be convincing proof that the Babylonians did devise 
a system of decans on the principle of heliacal risings ; the constellations 
of the astrolabes as now identified, and whose risings are controlled by 
the great star chart published by King 1-8 (see Kugler, Erganzungen, 
21 if.), do not always conform to this principle, and consequently Kugler 
has attempted to interpret the Babylonian system of three decans to each 
month along lines very similar to the astrological system of the Greeks 
as found in Firmicus. See Boucnfe-LECLERCQ, opus cit. 228. Here 
a planet is said to rule a decan or three planets rule an entire sign of 
the zodiac. For example, when the sun is in the first third of Aries the 
governing planet is Mars, when in the second third of Aries the sun 
himself is the ruling power, and for the last third of Aries, Venus rules. 
But line 4 of Great, v can hardly be interpreted in this sense, and there 
is no evidence in the extensive astrological literature that the Babylonians 
knew of a planetary decanal system. The Egyptians arbitrarily assigned 

154 Tablet V 

5. is-tu fi-mi * sa satta us-[si-ru i-nd\ u-su-ra-tl 

6. u-sar-sid man-za-az ''"Ni-bi-ri ana^ ud-du-u rik-si- 


thirty-six deities to these divisions of the track of the sun, and the names 
will be found in Boucnfe-LECLERCQ, 232-6. In fragments preserved by 
later writers from a lost work of Teucer, the Babylonian, are given the* 
stars outside the ecliptic (wapavarcAAoi'Ta) assigned to each decan of each 
sign of the zodiac; see Boll, Sphaera, 16-21. Dr. Fotheringham of 
Oxford agrees with Lindl in his interpretation of the figures on the 
astrolabes, but for other reasons. His conclusion which I communicate 
in his words is, ' The stars of the decans indicate the position of the sun 
at each point in the zodiac '. From statements of Lindl and Fothering- 
ham it follows that the three stars of each month succeed each other 
in heliacal rising, and are real time indicators. There is no trace of 
such a scientific system of decans in Greek astrology. It must, however, 
be admitted that the texts of the astrolabes require drastic revision to be 
made to conform to this scheme. For Kugler's former interpretation 
of our passage, which agrees with the view taken here, see Siernkunde, 
ii 13. 

Dr. Fotheringham communicates the following note : ' In my view 
the figures (after each star on the astrolabes) indicate the distance of the 
sun from the south poles of the three concentric spheres after he has 
completed each sign of the zodiac. I believe Lindl and I agree in 
postulating three concentric spheres, but not in our interpretation of the 
figures. I do not mean to assert that the stars of the decans (Trdpava- 
riXkovTo) are more accurately selected than in Greek astrology. My 
theory is perfectly consistent with Kugler's former interpretation ; if the 
names given in the texts will not fit into their proper decans it tells as 
strongly against Kugler as against me.' 

' Cf. ii.tu umi la . . . tizu, Ungnad, VAB. vi 131, 24, 'After I had 
gone up '. itmi sa ialli is usually rendered ' days of the year ' by previous 

" For usurtu employed in the technical sense of sign of the zodiac, 
constellation, see note on murata, 1. 3, and Weidner, Handbuch, 149. 
Cf. ussiru usuraii rabbali, in a somewhat different sense, Langdon, 
Paradis, 54, 24-5; 52, 18. 

^ K. 13774 (King, Creat. i 191) r« a-na. 

4 il>ij\~,i),yj^^ '"'■''^A'ibtru. Nibiru has a double signification in astrono- 
mical texts. In the first place it is the name of the planet Jupiter when 
it crosses the meridian by night. This is clear from Thompson, Reporls, 
94 Obv. 7-R. I, 'The star of INIarduk at his heliacal rising is called 

Astronomical Poem 155 

5. After he had defined the days of the year by signs,'' 

6. He established the place of Nibiru * to fix all of 

''"Sulpae, when he is one-and-a-half (or one or Iwo, text broken) hours 
{30 degrees — i biru) high (45 degrees, or 30° or 60°) he is called 
''"Sagmegar, and when he stands in the midst of the heavens {ina kabal 
"same) he is ^^^^Nibirti.' See Kugler, Sternkimde, i 2i5f. ; Weidner, 
H.B. X 26; Jastrow, Religion, ii 489. CT. 33, 2, 37, kakkabu rabd 
uddasu da'amai sami-e umailil-tna {^) izzazti kakkabu ^^^'■Marduk Ni-bi-ri: 
' The great star whose light is brown-red, which divides the heavens and 
stands is the star of Mafduk-Nibiru '. This note at the end of the group 
of Enlil stars clearly refers to Jupiter, for it is followed by '"^"■^Sagmegar 
manzazu tinakkir iami ibbir, 'Jupiter changes his position and crosses 
the heavens.' Again at the end of a list of Anu stars on the Berlin 
astrolabe Schroeder, KAV. p. 122, 29-32, kakkab da'aniu la ina tibi 
Itiii arki Hani miiliti ugdamirunimma same umassiiu-ma izzazu kakkabu 
hi '■^"Nibiru ^^'"■Jllardiik, ' The brown-red star which to the southward 
after the gods of tlie night are completed divides the heavens and stands 
still — that is the star Nibiru-Marduk.' Weidner, Haudbiich, p. 41, 
contends that the AVfo'r«-point indicates the summer solstice. The 
' Way of Anu ' corresponds roughly to the ecliptic. Hence all the 
planets belong to the Anu way, and despite the fact that Kugler has 
not explained the figures on the astrolabes which seem to indicate 
concentric spheres rather than three parallel bands of stars, Enlil Way = 
Northern band, Ea Way = Southern band, Anu Way = Equatorial band, 
I am convinced that he is right (Sknikunde, Ergcinzungen, p. 207), and 
that Weidner and Lindl's theories of concentric spheres are erroneous. 
In the London astrolabe ''"'''■"''Marduk governs the last decan of Adar, 
but on the Berlin astrolabe the second decan of Adar, where it is 
assigned to the Anu Way. The London astrolabe assigns it then to 
the Ea Way, and in the corresponding stars of Amurru, Elam, and 
Akkad, '"*^^'^Ni-bi-rum is the last star of Akkad. It is equally clear 
that the star Marduk-Nibiru is here a constellation which rose immediately 
before or at the spring equinox, and is identified by Weidner with 
Perseus, Bandbuch, 73, but his reckoning is for 4000 b. c, which is 
improbable. At any rate Nibiru also indicates a fixed star at or near 
the intersection of the equator and the ecliptic near Pisces and Aries. 
^^"^Nibiru is also said to be the name of Jupiter in the seventh month 
Tesrii (Sm. 777 = Weidner, Handbuch, 24), hence also a constellation 
■which rose at the autumn equinox near Libra and Scorpio. Or does 
this term simply imply that at the vernal and autumn equinox Jupiter 

156 Tablet V 

7. a-na la e-pis an-ni la e-gu-u ^ ma-na-ma 

8. man-za-az "'"Enlil u ''"Ea li-kin it-ti-su 

9. ip-te-ma abulle ina si-li ki-lal-la-an 

10. si-ga-ru ■• ud-dan-ni-na su-me-la u im-na 

is called the ' Nibiru ', the ' star of the crossing ', as any planet might be 
then called whatever its actual position ? 

It seems on the whole clear that Nibiru (the crossing) refers to the 
intersection of the celestial equator and the ecliptic, and that the name 
was applied to Jupiter as representative of the planets which cross from 
the southern to the northern part of the Way of Anu and vice versa 
twice in the periods of their orbits (disregarding the accidents of a planet's 
apparent backward and forward movement or planetary ' knot ' at the 
equator). Hence ' Jupiter Nibiru ' simply means a planet which crosses 
the equator, ' the celestial plan of the movements of the planets in the 
ecliptic ', and in Book VII the scribe explains the name, " Nibiru the 
holder of its middle '. ' Of the stars of heaven may he uphold their ways ', 
11. iiof. The planet Jupiter is designated by "'"^Marduk = wf-iJe-ra, 
II R. 51, 61, a writing which suggests that neberu may not be Semitic, 
and cf. ni-bi-ri, name of a weapon, RA. 16, 152, 18. In K. 3507 Obv. 
"•"'Ne-bi-ru is mentioned in a list of fixed stars, Orion, Ursa Major, 
the Kidney Star, Boar Star, Dilgan, Musirkesda, and also Sulpae, 
usually a name of Jupiter, and they are also called ' gods of the night '. 
The astronomical lists assign some of these ' gods of the night ' to the 
Enlil Way, some to the Anu Wa}-, and some to the Ea Way. Since 
in this list two names of Jupiter appear as designations of fixed stars 
it may be supposed that Nibiru originally meant a constellation in or 
near Libra, and Hulpae, after Nibiru had been associated with Jupiter, 
came to designate some constellation at the opposite intersection of the 
celestial equator and the ecliptic, i. e. a constellation in or near Aries. 
My conclusion is that Nibiru is Semitic, and means 'place of crossing', 
originally the place of the crossing of the equator by the sun and 
planets, and then applied to Marduk, ' god of the crossing ', as the chief 
planet, and also to two constellations in these two celestial regions. That 
I take to be the meaning of the passage under discussion. See Book 
VII 108. 

' K. 8526, u. egii, probably not egil, babble, meditate, sin, but egi2 
(j)V), be weary, loiter. The line refers to the fixed points of the ecliptic 
or path of the sun, which to the ancients seemed to pass around the 
earth once a year with invariably the same relative inclination to the 


Astronomical Poem 157 

7. In order that none transgress or loiter. 

8. He appointed the place(s) of Enlil and Ea ^ with 
him, (i.e. beside the Anu way). 

9. He opened gates on both sides. ^ 

10. He made strong the lock-rails left and riuht. 

- This refers surely to the northern band of stars parallel to the central 
band of equatorial stars or the Way of Enlil, and to the corresponding 
southern band or Way of Ea. Since in lines 6-7 the manzaz ^^^Nibiri 
means in a large sense the band of stars which fix the course of the 
planets which cross the equator, this interpretation of line 8 follows. 
The Var. K. 13774 has ''"A-ni'm for '^"Fa, an error which proves clearly 
enough that the scribe had these three bands of stars in mind. Weidner, 
Handbuch, p. 33 f., e.xplained the manzaz ''■^'■JliiUI as the north pole of 
the ecliptic, and the ?nanzaz '■^"■Ea as the point of the winter solstice. 
Jensen, Kosmologie, 16 ff., held similar views, but he withdrew his 
argument in KB. vi 347 in favour of the view taken here. Lindl's 
argument in his article Zur babylonischen Astronomic, pp. 351 f, in which 
he sees here the ' Kenntnis von regelmiissigem Vorwartswandern des 
Nibirupunktes ', i. e. the Precession of the equinox, is not convincing. 
For Enlil associated with the north and Ea with the south, see the names 
of the gates of the northern and southern sides of Sargon's palace, 
KB. ii 50, 68 + 70 (Dhorme, Choix, p. 59). 

^ For si-li kilalhln, the two ends, or eastern and western sides, opposed 
to pa-nu u ar-ka or ina rest u arkaii, in front (north) and behind (south), 
see CT. 26, 27, 71, and Delitzsch, H.W. 566. The line refers to the 
mythological gates at sunrise and sunset through which the sun entered 
and departed. Early seals frequently represent the sun-god opening the 
gate of sunrise which consists of two doors swinging upon posts. He 
holds in his hand a key adapted for insertion into a lock with falling 
bolts, and the scene is technically described by F. von Luschan in 
Primitive Tilren und TiirverschlUsse, Orientalische Studien Fritz Hommel 
. . . gewidmet, ii 357-69, with illustrations of what he conceives to have 
been this old Babylonian gate and lock. 

' Sumerian sigar = sigaru, is probably the long narrow block fastened 
on each door of a gate. In the mortise of the left block was placed the 
lock (namzabi), which consisted of a pin or pins [saggul or gag = 
sikurru, sikkatu) which fell into holes in a sliding bolt (sudes, sagil = 
medilu) to the level of the top of a long slot in the bolt. Into this slot 
was inserted the key {gag ni-tu'g = muse'lu, the lifter) with prongs to the 
same number as the pins, and working like a lever. The key when 
pushed downward lifts the prongs under the pins and raises them to free 

158 Tablet V 

11. ina ka-bat-ti^-sa-ma is-ta-kan e-la-a-ti'' 

1 2. "'"Nannar-ru us-te-pa-a mu-sa ik-ti-pa ^ 

13. u-ud-di-sum-ma su-uk-nat mu-si a-na ud-du-u 


1 4. ar-hi-sam la na-pdr-ka-a ina a-gi-e * u-sir 

15. i-na res arhi-ma na-pa-hi e-Qi]'' ma-a-ti 

the bolt or bar. This bar passes across the central part of the two doors 
sliding into a lock rail or block on the right door. For illustrations 
of this kind of door fastening and lock see the Egyptian lock in 
Encyclopaedia Britannica under ' Lock ' and F. von Luschan in Orient. 
Studien F. Hommel . . . gewidmet, ii 362. By synecdoche sigaru is 
extended to mean door and door fastening. So in King, Magic, 52, 22, 
lisbat ^?"h'gar namzaki-mnu, ' [May the god Neduh] take his place at the 
door of their lock '. Mgaru is certainly not ' key ' as Mkissner translates, 
ATV. i 39 ; cf. SBP. 206, 20, where the sun-god enters by drawing 
back the sigaru, i. e. here door ( = dallu, of which sigaru is a part), and 
the sigaru may have bas-reliefs of monsters, Gudea, Cyl. A, 26, 24. 
'Left and right' may possibly refer to the east and west if the orienta- 
tion be taken from the south, or west and east if the orientation be 

• Literally 'liver', but also 'belly'; see Holma, Korperleile, 79. 

^ eldti is certainly a technical term connected with an-pa = elat lame, 
and means something more definite than the ' upper regions ' (Dhorme). 
ZiMMERN and King render ' zenith ', which is impossible. Jensen, KB. 
vi 348 f., shows that elat same always means the western horizon where 
the new moon appears, and the new moon is referred to in the next line. 
Note that elat lame in KB. ii 10, 4 = Tamtim sa sulmi samsi, i.e. the 
west, and Tiranna (milky-way?) stretches from AN-fiR {= ihd lame, 
eastern horizon) to the an-pa, western horizon. Note also that si-bad- 
NA = elat same, where Nannar or the new moon stands, SBH. no. 83 R. 
38, that is in Sumerian 'horn of the wall of heaven (?)'. Ungnad in 
Altorientalische Texie und Bilder, 20 n. 11, without hesitation renders 
'north pole', and that seems to be Lindl's view, I.e. 355. The 
Sumerian an-pa can hardly admit of more than two interpretations, 
kippat same, ' wing or quarter of heaven ', an-gad = hatti lame, ' sceptre 
of heaven ', or namdra la lame, ' shining forth in the heavens '. This 

Astronomical Poem 159 

11. In her belly he placed the ' heights ', 

12. (And) caused the new moon to shine forth, 
entrusting (to him) the night. 

13. He fixed him as a being of the night to determine 
the ' days '. 

14. Monthly without ceasing he magnified him with 
a crown : 

15. 'At the beginning of the month, (the time) of the 
shining; forth ^ over the land 


designation for the west where the new moon is first seen, ' wing (?) of 
heaven, heights of heaven', depends upon some obscure conception 
which has not been discovered. Jensen, ibid. p. 577, was inclined 
to associate elat same with htpuk same, both terms for western 
horizon (?). 

' Cf. Harper, Letters, 44, 14, itia eli ahitc amiiti ik-ti-pti-ni-ka, 'Over 
this matter they entrusted thee'. On K. 13774 before ultepd the text 
has MUL {})-su = kakkab-lu (?), so King and Dhorme, i. e. Of Nannara 
his star, &c. With this reading ''"Nannar is not identified literally with 
the new moon, but the meaning is 'The star of the god Nannar'. But 
there are no examples of the moon being designated a§ a star. 

* K. 8526, 7111. ami, Unu is clearly a plural, and 'days' can hardly 
mean ' time ' as Zimmern and Jensen translate. Ungnad, I.e., translates 
' days ', but adds ' days = dates '. I do not know of a passage which 
supports this view, timu can mean ' time ' in an abstract sense, see 
Ungnad, Briefe, 257, but hardly in the plural. Shamash determines 
the days, but the moon's period is the principal time unit in Babylonia. 
K. 13774 reads suk-nat. See 1. 16. 

* K. 13774, AGA. agd, crown, designates the ashen light of the 
moon during its first quarter. See the exhaustive data in Weidner, 
BA. viii, pt. 4, 24-8, and Kugler, Stemktmde, i 274; ii 101-3. 

' usir is probably IP of seru. Cf. gu-mu-ni-ma^ = lu-u-si-ir, he 
magnified, King, LIH. i 203, 77. 

' Here begins K. 11 461 in King, Great, i 192. 

' Jensen suggests that napahu (technical term for the daily rising of the 
sun and moon, or heliacal rising of a fixed star) is an infinitive employed 
as an imperative. Dhorme construes napahi as Inf. of purpose. The 
word is construed as in apposition to res in my text and by Ebeling and 
Weidner, BA. viii* p, 28. Ungnad agrees with Jensen, but see note on 
nabata, 1. 16. 

i6o Tablet V 

1 6. kar-nl na-ba-a-ta ana ud-du-u 6 u-mi^ 

17. i-na um 7-kam a-ga-a [ma-as-]la^ 

18. [sa]-pat-tu' lu-u su-tam-hu-rat mes-li " [ar-hi-] 

1 9. [e-]nu-ma ''"Samas ina i-sid sami-e ' [ik-su-du]-ka 

20 -ti sLi-tak-si-ba-am-ma bi-ni ar-ka-[nu]- 

us * 

' K. 8526, -mu. This line also fixes the meaning of 1. 13, 'to deter- 
mine the days (of the phases of the moon) '. Here the shape of the 
moon is described in the first quarter with horns and a pale disk for 
the remaining part of the moon or the ashen light. 

' nabata is naturally permansive o{7iabu, blaze, shine, see Th.-Dangix, 
RA. 10, 224. 

^ This restoration is certain from K. 2164, 11, iimu i-ham \aga ma-'\ 
al-la, and the commentary, 1. 12, ES ■=■ rnilil, Babyloniaca, vi 8; 
Weidner, ibid, and BA. 8* p. 28, reads bi-i-la, extinguish, but the 
' crown ', or dark part of the moon is only half extinguished on the 
seventh day. Jensen's reading him-si-la, divide, makes good sense, but 
K. 2164 has \tna-]as-la clearly. See also CT. 25, 50, 2, mas-lum agit 
"j-kam. The half crown is the seventh day. 

* K. 13774 has a version for lines 17-18 or the phases of the moon 
during the first fifteen days. The major texts are all based upon a week 
of seven days, but K. 13774 has a version based upon the five-day week. 
An Assyrian and Cappadocian week of five days was established by 
Sayce, and see more evidence for a possible secondary Sumerian week 
of this kind in Landsberger, Kaknder, 96. 

K. 13774, which is restored by III R. 55, no. 3, and CT. 26, 41, 16 ff. 
in Weidner's Handbuch, p. i8, has the following version: 

\iltu Umi \-kam adi umi\ ^-kam 5 ii-mi \azhiru '^"Ami] 

\is/u ilmi 6-ka??i adi umi lo-^kain 5 u-\jni ka-U-titm '''^£a'\ 

[isiu umi ii-kam adi u-mi 15 kam 5 t2-mi agu tdi-ri-ih-ti ip-pir 

' From the ist day to the 5th, five days, (it is called) the sickle. It 
belongs to Anu. 

'From the 6ih day to the loth, five days, (it is called) the kidney. It 
belongs to Ea. 

'From the i ith day to the 15th, five days, (with) a crown of brilliance 
he is clad. It belongs to Enlil.' 

Here each of the first three weeks is assigned to one of the three 
supreme gods of the Trinity as regent. 

Motions of the Moon i6r 

1 6. Thou shalt shine- with horns to determine six days, 

17. And on the seventh day with a half crown.* 

18. At the full moon verily thou art in opposition (to 
the sun), monthly, 

19. When the Sun on the foundation of heaven has 
overtaken thee, 

20. The keep and shine thou (in thy course) 


^ Cf. arham sibiitam u sa-pa-at-lam. First day of the month, seventh 
day and the full moon, Th.-Dangin, Lcllres et Con/rals, 50, 28-g, in 
Ungnad, Briefe, 246, corrected by Landsberger, KuUkaknder, 98. ma 
arhi sibilli u sa-pa-al-ti\ CT. vi 5 (5 20 ; cf. Landsberger, ibid. ; la-pat-tu, 
Craig, RT. ii ii, 25 = iim i$-kam on Var. K. 8447 in BA. x', p. 81, 
Rev. 5. labatiu, lapattu is the technical name of the day of the full 
moon, the fifteenth of the month, PSBA. 1904, PI. 0pp. p. 56, 1. 13. 
Like sibdlu, ' seventhness ', saballu is an abstract noun from sabdtu, be 
complete, literally ' completion ', i. e. ' full moon '. It is explained as ilm 
7iuh libbi/Azy of the making peaceful the heart', CT. 18, 23, 17, i.e. 
by pra3'er and sacrifice, and hence zztr, to sacrifice, worsiiip, is explained 
by sapallu, Meissner, SAL 6829, and note leg = sapatiu, SAL 5677, and 
teg = ndhti, passim. Hence not 'day of rest', but day whose ceremonies 
bring peace to the worshipper. On the entire question of lapattu 
and the Hebrew Sabbath see Landsberger, ibid. 131-5. At the begin- 
ning of the line Jensen, King, Dhorme, Ungnad, and all earlier interpreters 
read fanii i^-tu, but Zimmern's reading sa-pat-tu is certain. 

'• K, 11641, mi-sili^.). 

' The east or sunrise, see note on elati, 1. 11. Jensen's restoration 
iksudu is certain. The sun seems to revolve around the earth once in 
24 hours and the moon once in 24 hours 50 minutes, and hence it may 
be said that, when the sun rises and the full moon has not yet set in the 
west in the early morning, the sun in the east has overtaken the moon. 
This may occur the morning before opposition or the first or second 
morning after opposition, depending upon the position of the moon in its 
orbit. The phrase eniima sin samas iksudamma itti-su ittintu means 
' When the sun overtakes the moon and with him marches ', Thompson, 
Reports, 124, i ; 127, i; Virolleaud, Sin, iii 51, refers always to this 
period of the moon's phases. On nittl, march, v. Babylonian Wisdom, 47, 40. 

* K. II 64 1, ar-ka-nis. For bi-ni arkamis cf. Thompson, Rep. 272, 
Rev. 4-5 ; enuma '""^'■Sag-me-gar iklud-am-via '"^^'■^Lugal ittetik-ma ib- 
ni-su arka-nu '"'^^'^Lugal la '"'■'^'^Sag-me-gar ittetiku-lti-via ib-nu-lu 
ikalladamma '""'■^Sag-me-gar ittetik-ma ana ribi-lu illak, ' When Jupiter 

2687 L 

1 62 Tablet V 

21. [um bu-ub-bu-]lum a-na har-ra-an '^"Samsi su-tak- 

2 2. [um 29-]kam lu su-tam-hu-rat ''"Samas lu sa-na- 

23. [ *]///« ba-'-i u-ru-uh-sa 

24. [ su-]tak-ri-ba-ma di-na di-na 
25 ha-ba-la 

26 -ni ia-a-ti 

(128) lu-su 

(129) -su-nu-ti nu 

(130) -su e 

(131) -su-nu-ti 

(132) be{J)-\\x hu 

(133) ilani i-kab-bu 

(134) kakkabani 

(135) ma-a-ru-»/ 

(136) ni it 

(137) ■\x-\)2\-\\-ta\an-na-li\ 

has overtaken and passed beyond Regulus and has illuminated him 
again (Regulus which Jupiter passed and illuminated overtakes Jupiter 
and passes him) and he Jupiter goes into obscurity'. Here a 'knot' 
of Jupiter's orbit occurs at Regulus, and the retrograde movement is 
expressed by ibni arkanu. After the moon's opposition on the western 
horizon in the morning this satellite each succeeding morning stands 
higher in the west at sunrise with increasing shadow ; finally at the end 
of the month it disappears totally in the sun's rays for two to three days 
beneath the eastern horizon. It has during the waning period ' shone 
backward ' or decreased from west to east. 
' K. II 64 1, rim; see also K. 2164, 24. 

^ The astronomical commentary on the motions of the moon, K. 2164 
in Babyloniara, vi 8-28, after defining the moon's position on the twenty- 
seventh day has [ud-nd-a] ana /larran ''"Sarnh' lu-lak-rim-ma lu-tam-hit\ 
' [At the period of darkness] approach the way of the sun and stand in 
opposition ', i. e. the Babylonians spoke of two oppositions of the moon, 
the first (in 1. 18) at the full moon directly opposite the sun, and the 
second when the moon stood between the earth and the sun at the end 

Motions of the Moon 1 6 

21. At the period of darkness* approach to the way 
of the sun, 

22. [And on the 29th day] verily thou standest in 
opposition to the sun a second time. 

23 omen, enter upon her way. 

24 approach and render judgement, 

25. [To honour or] to disgrace. 

26 thou me. 



(129) he them 

(130) his 

(131) he them 

(132) the lord 

(133) -cd the gods, saying 

(134) the stars he 

(135) our son has 

(136) us he has 

(137) he left us in life. 

of the period of invisibility (28th-29th days of the month), just before 
the sun overtakes it on the western horizon before sunset (new moon). 
Weidner restored [ilin 28-~\kam, but the traces favour luni, and Lands- 
BERGER Kaknder, 142, suggested the reading adopted here. 

^ So ZiMiMERN from the traces on K. 11 641; the form la-nu-lam is 
required or sanCtesu or ^a-ni-a-nii. 

' Landsberger suggests that irsitu stood here as antecedent of la at 
the end. 

' The fragment K. 3449 a (CT. 13, 23) was first assigned to the 
Fifth Tablet by George Smith, and his view has been adopted by all 
later editors without much hesitation. Approximate position is certain. 
But it is now found to belong to the Sixth Tablet by the discovery 
of nearly the entire text of that portion of the epic. See the text VI 53 ff. 
For the remainder of Tablet V we possess only the fragmentary lines 
on the reverse of K. 11641, which belong toward the end of this book. 
The missing portion of Tab. V undoubtedly contained more astronomical 
poetry, and the entire book is a Babylonian prototype of the Astronomica 
of Manilius. 

L 2 

1 64 Tablet VI 

(138) z-h'?n-me me . . us 

(139) la 7(m nu 

(140) i'/ain ni-i-nti 

[''"Marduk zik-ri] ilani ina se-mi"-su 

Colophon on K. 3567. 

diip-pi ^-kam-nie e-nu-ma e-lis 

mat "^"Asur-bani-apli sar kissati sar mat ''"Asur-(ki). 


1. [''"Marjcluk zik-rl ilani ina se-mi-su 
i^. [ub]-bal lib-ba-su i-ban-na-a nik-la-a-te 

2. [ep-]su pi-i-su a-na """E-a i-[zak-kar-ma] 

2^^. [sa] ina libbi-su us-ta-mu-u i-nam-din mil-ku 

3. da-mi lu-uk-sur-ma \^-^\-\m-tum lu-sab-si-ma 

4. lu-us-ziz-ma lila^ lu a-me-lu sum'-su 

' Here begin a few lines from the end of K. 8526 and K. 3567. 
^ Catchline from K. 8526. Var. 11641, -me. 

» The principal text for this tablet is KAR. 164 (VAT. 9676). 
Lines 1-20 were previously known from BM. 92629 (King, Great, ii, 

PI- 35-7). 

* Not ' my blood ' as first rendered by King after Berossus. See also 
my Pohne Stune'rien du Paradis, 34. Berossus has been misinterpreted 
by all of us. He does not mean to say that Marduk commanded one of 
the gods to cut off his (Marduk' s) head but his own head, and to mix the 
outpouring blood with the earth so as to fashion men and animals capable 
of breathing the air. The passage in Berossus is so constructed and 
compressed that it is incomprehensible. From the restored text of 
Tab. VI it now appears that Marduk commanded the bound Kingu 
to be brought before Ea ; he was slain and from his blood Ea created 
man. See commentary on line 26. 

* essimlu is a difficult form. The singular of this word is eu'mlu, 
Th.-Dangin, Lettres el Centrals, 9, 7; CT. 12, 13010. The Semitic 

Mardiik creates Man i6s 

(138) hearing ' . . . 

(139) .... 
{140) we the gods. 

Colophon on K. 3567. 

Fifth tablet of Enuma eliL 

Land of Asurbanipal king of universal dominion, king 
of Assyria. 


1. When Marduk heard the words of the eods, 

i^. his heart prompted him as he devised clever 

2. He opened his mouth speaking unto Ea, 

2^. that which he conceived in his heart, giving him 

3. ' Blood * will I construct, bone ° will I cause to be. 

4. Verily I will cause Lihl (man) to stand forth, verily 
his name is man. 

word is a katlu form, in Hebrew {esem), Arabic {'aznn/>!). Ethiopic ['asem, 
'(idem); Babylonian esi'm/u, Cstr. ep/it'/, PI. esmdti (Harper, Lett. 348, 
II, esmetu, CT. 23,16, 13); esem-siri, 'backbone', Ungnad, Briefe, 
269, is based upon the form killii, kiiiltii, Delitzsch, Assyr. Gram. 
p. 167, 4. esnmtu is apparently a kiitil form, cf. milliku, and appar- 
ently an intensive of kilil., and a modified form of katil due to the 
influence of the guttural 'ayin. Hence the base of the Babylonian 
e^simtu would be 'asim, the usual Semitic form for parts of the body. 
See Brockelmann, Vergkichende Gram. p. 336; kiitil, the Hebrew 
form for bodily defects, is really as Barth maintained, an intensive katil, 
see Brockelmann, ibid. p. 360 d). Hence Assyrian has two base forms 
for this word, kitlit {esmu) and katil>kitlil (essimtii). 

^ The word for 'man', homo, is lili, loan-word liM, see Tab. I 142. 

' King's copy of 92629 has here the Neo-Bab. form of TAK, ^UM 
KAR. 164, MU. 

1 66 Tablet VI 

5. lu-ub-ni-ma lila a-me-lu 

6. lu-u 1 en-du dul-lu ^ ilani-ma su-nu lu-u pa-as-hu 

7. lu-sa-an-ni-ma al-ka-ka-ti * ilani lu-nak-ki-[il] ^ 

8. is-te-nis lu kub-bu-tu"-ma a-na ' si-na lu-ii-zi-zu 

9. i-pul-su-ma '^ '^"E-a a-ma-tam i-kab-bi-su 

10. as-su tap-su-uh-ti * sa ^ ilani u-si"-an-na-as-su te-e- 


11. li-in-na-ad-nam-ma is -ten a-hu-su-nu 
Ilk su-ii li-ab-bit-ma nise lip-pat-ku 

12. lip-hu-ru-nim-ma ilani ^^ rabiiti 

12^. an-ni '^ li-in-na-din-ma su-nu lik-tu-nu 

13. '^"Marduk u-pah-hir-ma ilani rabuti 
13''. ta-bis li-'a-ar'" i-nam-din ter-tu 

14. ip-su pi-i-su ilani u-pak-kad 

14k sarru a-na '^"A-nun-na-ki a-ma-ta i-zak-kar 

15. lu-ii ki-nam-ma mah-ru-ii nim-bu-ku-un 

' KAR. 164, ?/(?)and//. 

- The idea that man was primarily created for the service of the gods 
finds frequent expression in religious texts. See the Assur version of 
man's creation from the blood of two minor gods, Poeme du Paradis, 
47, 27 ff. and especially p. 59. 

^ KAR. 164, kal, kil. 

* iusamii, a ' helping verb ', to return to the task, to go on with a task. 
Cf. j'snil arh'u, ' the wise undertook (to repair) again ', Nies, Historical, 
Religious, a?id Eco?iomic Texts, 31, 7. as-ni-ma alptit, VAB. iv 238, 45. 
King, Dhorme, and Luckenbill (AJSL. 38, 21) render 'change the 
ways of the gods ', which is also possible and makes good sense, but 
fhe syntax is against this view. Ebeling renders the line in the sense 
adopted here. 

^ KAR. 164, til, ana. 

'^ This rendering is based upon II R. 47, 22, ana sini-su izzazu, and 
CT. 27, 26, 7, ana Una zi-iz, see Ungxad, ZA. 31, 253-5, but the 

The Slain God 167 

5. I will create Lilii, man. 

6. Verily let the cult services of the gods be imposed, 
and let them be pacified.^ 

7. I will moreover * skilfully contrive the ways of the 

8. All together let them be honoured and may they be 
divided into two parts.' ^ 

9. Ea replied to him^ speaking to him a word ; 

TO. For the pacification of the gods he imparted to 
him a plan : 

11. ' Let one of their brothers be given. 
11^. He shall perish and men be fashioned. 

12. Let the great gods assemble, 

12b. Let this one be given and as for them may they 
be sure of it.' 

13. Marduk assembled the great gods, 

13'^. Kindly he ordered them giving instruction. 

14. He opened his mouth charging the gods, 

14^ The king speaking a word to the Anunnaki." 

15. 'Verily the former thing which we foretold to you 
is become true,^^ 

meaning is obscure. The line refers to a division of the gods of the 
lower world and the upper world into two groups; see 1. 29. 

' 92629, i-pu-id-lu-hi-ma. * 92629, -iih-tum. 

' Ihid., hi-tit. "> la. " Var. 92629, AN-AN. 

" annu usually refers to something just mentioned. Ebeling, having 
in mind the punishment of Kingu which follows, takes anni for annu, 
punishment; see line 25 and note on an-?iam. 

" 92629, ji-'a-a-ra. 

" The ' great gods ' in 1. 1 2 mean the Annunaki and Igigi, and that 
is the usual meaning of ild>7i rabuli, and these spirits here include the 
highest gods of the pantheon. 

^'' Marduk here refers to his oaih made before the assembly of the 
gods that he would bind Tiamat if he received the power to determine 
fates from them. Luckfnbill reads u-tiim-bu = unabbH, but 7iab/i, II', 
is used only for ' to wail', but it avoids the difficulty of the ist PI. 
for 'I'. 

i6S Tablet VI 

16. ki-na-a-ti a-ta-ma-a i-nim-ma-a it-ti-ia 

17. [w?fl]-nu-um-ma sa ib-nu-ii tu-ku-un-tu 

18. "'"'Ti-amat ^ u-sa-bal-ki-tu-ma ^ ik-sur-ru ta-ha-zu 

19. li-in-na-ad-nam-ma sa ib-nu-ii tu-ku-un-tu 

20. ar-nu-us-su lu-u-sa-as-sa-a pa-sa-his tus-ba* 

21. i-pu-lu-su-ma ''"Igigi ^ ilani rabuti 

22. a-na '^Lugal-dim-me-ir-an-ki-a ma-lik ilani be-la- 


23. '^"Kin-gu-ma sa ib-nu-ii tu-ku-un-tu 

24. Ti-amat us-bal-ki-tu-ma ik-su-ru ta-ha-zu 

25. ik-mu-su mah-ris """E-a u-[se-bi-ku-]su ' 
25^. an-nam * i-me-du-su-ma da-me-su ip-tar-'-u ' 

26. ina da-me-su ib-[na] ^" a-me-lu-tu 
26b. i-na [dul]-li ilani-ma ilani um-tas-sir 

' Cf. inimme kahlali-ha, 'Thy serious oaths', PSBA. 19 16, 136, 32. 
inimmii is a loan-word having a collective sense of ' words taken under 
oath', hence construed ad setisum in Fem. PI. For lamil itti-ia cf. Heb. 
If nisbdti. Gen. 22, 16, &c. Here begins K. 12000b (CT. 13, 24). 

^ Text restored by K. 12000 b. For Hat T. see Tab. I 107. The 
spacing demands this reading. 

' K. \2000h, u's-\bal-ki-iu\ 

* So read with Ebeling, tulha = tilha. 

" For the derivation of Igigi = ia-gil-gu = 5 X 120, or the ' six 
hundred', see Babyloniaca, iv 236 n. 2. 

* Title of Marduk, ' King of the gods of heaven and earth '. See 
VAB.iv72,5o; 90,34; 126, 58 ; Th.-Dangin, i?//. 137, 301 ; Ebeling, 
KAR. 142, 5; Deimel, Paiiiheo?i, 1908. 

' Cf. Ill 6. Ebeling restored ii-lbi-ht] ; Luckenbill ii-[ni]-su ; 
cf. ur-ra-hi asris di-i-[ni'\, IV R. 54, 30. 

* In line 1 2'' the word an-ni may perhaps be taken for ' my sentence 
of punishment', but the phrase annam 7iaddnu cannot be otherwise 

" Abbreviated expression for tislat dami parau; cf. IV 131. The 
Hebrew D"iN ' be red ', and its cognates (see Holma, Kbrperteik, 7) is 
a triliteral form derived from damu, and the derivative 'addm, man, may 

Kingii slain to create Man 169 

16. Swearing true oaths ^ by myself. 

1 7. Who was it that made war ? 

18. That caused Tiamat to revolt and joined battle ? 

19. Let him that made war be given. 

20. I will cause him to bear his transgression, but 
dwell ye in peace.' 

21. The Igigi the great gods replied, 

22. Unto Lugal-dimmer-anki,'' counsellor of the gods 
their lord. 

23. ' It was Kingu that made war ; 

24. That caused Tiamat to revolt and joined battle.' 

25. They bound him and brought him before Ea, 
2^^, Punishment they imposed upon him, they severed 

(the arteries) of his blood. 

26. With his blood he (Ea) made mankind, 

26^. In the cult service of the gods, and he set the 
gods free. 

be connected with this legend of the creation of man from the blood of 
a god. 

" This restoration seems certain from the regular phrase employed 
in some legends of the creation of man. Ebeling restores ib-lul, and 
liil clearly suits the traces on the tablet, and the legend preserved by 
Berossus says that man was made by mixing clay with blood, see Pohiic 
du Paradis, 34. In the Nippur version the mother-goddess Aruru 
(Mami, Nintud) created man, see ibid. 20 if., from clay only or gave 
birth to him directly, but a Semitic legend (ibid. 37) states that Mami 
made man from clay and blood at the order of Ea (Enki), who com- 
manded that a god be slain and that Ninharsag ina liri-lu u ddiui-su 
liballil tittam (ibid. p. 38). This passage supports the reading iblul. 
On the other hand, Marduk in this same Epic VII 29 is said to have 
created man ibnu ainelulu, whereas in reality he only instructed Ea to 
do it, and a late bilingual incantation also attributes the creation of 
mankind to Marduk {amelCiti ibtani) assisted by Aruru. There were 
in fact two Sumerian traditions, one from Nippur in which the earth- 
goddess created man from clay, and one from Eridu in which Ea created 
man in the same manner. The legend of the slaying of a god and 
mixing his blood with clay is probably later and worked into both 
versions. Marduk had originally no connexion with the tale. This 

i7o" Tablet VI 

27. ul-tu a-me-lu-tu [ib-]nu-u^ ''"E-a-ma 
27^. dul-lu ilani i-mi-du a-sa-a-su^ 

28. sip-ru su-u la na-tu-u ha-sa-sis 

28^ ina nik-la-a-ti sa ''"Marduk \ti ni-me-ki] '■'"Nu- 


29. ''"Marduk sar ilani u-za-'-iz 

2gb_ '^«A-nun-na-ki [u '^"Igigi] e-Hs u saplis 

30. u-ad-di a-na '^"A-nim te- " na-sa-ru 

30^ ma-sar-tu 

31. us-tes-ni-ma al-ka-kat irsitim \i-\_nak-kir\ 

3 it", \ildni hi\ sami-e u irsi-tim 

32. ul-tu te-ri-e-tim ildui li-ma-'-i-ru \_'" Mardu/i\ Sarru 

■^l. '^"A-nun-na-ki sa sami-e 

34. ''"A-nun-na-ki [sa irsi-tim \ht,-nu \-pu-su 

35. a-na '^"Marduk be-la-su-nu su-nu iz-zak-[ka-ru] 

36. i """Nannaru be-li sa ussura-ni ' tas-ku-nu-ma 

Assur copy of Tab. VI does not substitute Assur for Marduk, but is 
a copy from Babylonia. The version of the creation of man in Assyria 
has no connexion with the Epic of Creation ; see Pohtie du Paradis, 
40-57. Here all the great gods assist in making man from the blood 
of two ' artisan gods ' (sons of Ea !). In any case the legend of a god 
who was sacrificed to create man is extremely old. Luckenbill reads 
ib-na, and cf. ina da-me-su-mi i ni-ib-tia-a a-me-lu-ta, Poeme du Paradis, 
46, 26. 

' Ebeling, ib-ba-nu-u ^^'"■Ea ul-zib ; Luckenbill, a-me-lu i-ib-ba-nu-u 
il"Ea ir-te-sib. ZIB is clearly for the caesura. See Ebeling p. 56 note. 

"^ For ana salii. 

' The passage recalls Tab. I 94. Literally ' not suited to the under- 

* Nudimmud, title of Ea as creator of man, Ea sa nabniii, CT. 25, 48, 4, 
and Na-dim-mud = Ea sa (ban) kalama, 1. 5. The name means 
NA (nti) = amelu, dim = bunnanu, mud = banii, i. e. ban-bunnani-ameli, 
' Creator of the form of man '. 

The Gods receive their powers 1 7 1 

27. After Ea had created mankind and (?) 

27^. had imposed the cult service of the gods upon 

28. That work was past understanding,^ 

28^. Through skill of Marduk and the wisdom of 

29. Marduk king of the gods divided 

29^". the Anunnaki and the Igigi * above and beneath. 

30. To Anu he decreed the watching of the 

30^^ a watch. 

31. Moreover the ways of the lower world he contrived 

31^. The gods of heaven and earth he 

32. After Marduk the king had issued the laws of the 
gods, and 

2,2,. The Anunnaki of heaven he and 

34. Of the Anunnaki of earth their had made 

35. Unto Marduk their lord they said : 

36. ' O Nannar ^ my lord, thou who hast brought about 
our deliverance, 

' The gods were divided into the Igigi, who included all deities of the 
upper world, and the Anunnaki or deities of the lower world. Most 
extraordinary uncertainty prevailed about the numbers of these two 
groups. The sign ner = 600, Br. 10146 is employed for the Igigi, 
IV R. 60 a 32, but for the Anunnaki, IV R. 33 n. 14 and Craig, RT. 
30, 26. Igigi means '600', and in SEP. 164, 36 the name is replaced 
by ''•A-nun-na an-na, 'The Anunnake of heaven', where they are 300 
and the Anunnaki of earth are 600, 1. 37. The gods of the lower world 
are said to be 50 in Bab. vi 107, 4, and of. SEP. 164, 33. The two 
groups are often spoken of as ' gods of heaven and gods of earth '. 

" Ebeling, te-rit-su. 

' Text "su-bar-ra-ni. Perhaps a loan-word subarrdi Cf. iHg-lal 
lu-bar-ra-da = kasd tilsuru, to free the bound, IV R. 17 a 36. See the 
Sumerian hymn to Sulpae = Marduk, Zimmern, KL. 78 Obv. 24, galu 
su-bar-bar-ra me-en, thou ait a deliverer, and 1. 26, hi-bar-ra. See also 
PBS. X 256, 16. 

' Nannaru, the ordinary title of Sin of Ur, is here employed in the 

172 Tablet VI 

37. mi-nu-u du-muk-ka-ni ina mah-ri-ka 

38. i ni-pu-us pa-rak-ki sa na-bu-u zi-kir-su 


39. ku-um-mu lu [nu]-bat-ta-ni i nu-sap-si-ih ki-rib-su 

40. i nid-di pa-[rak] ni-me-da a-ia-sa ^ f 

41. ina u-me sa ni-kas-sa-da nu-sap-sah kir-bu-us 

42. ''"Marduk an-ni-tu ina se-me-e-su 

43. [ki-ma] u-mu im-me-ru zi-mu-su ma-'a-dis 

44. kima sa-[^-i'«] Bab-ilani-(ki) sa te-ri-sa si-pir-su 

45. Yih-ha-na alu lip-pa-ti-ik-ma pa-rak-ka ib-ra 

46. "'"A-nun-na-ki id-ru-ki al-lu * 
46''. sat-tu is-ta-at ' li-bit-ta-su [il-bi-nu] 

47. sa-ni-tu sattu ina ka-sa-di 
47^. sa E-sag-ila mi-ih-rit apsi *^ ul-lu-u ri-[sa-su] 

1 1 

48. ib-nu-u-ma zig-gur-rat apsa e-li-ti ill 

48^ a-na ''"Marduk "'"En-lil """E-a h^a-sn li-kin-nu 


sense of Nusku, god of the new moon and fire-god. Marduk is 
repeatedly referred to in this Epic as the fire-god; see I 160 and note. 
Cf. the title of Marduk, na-an-na-rti ba-nu-u a-pa-a-ii, Craig, RT. 52, 42. 

' Ebeling's reading appears to be sound. The gods are now fulfilling 
the promise made at the beginning of Book IV. See also RA. 14, 166, 
23, nimedu =z parakku. 

^ The reference is to assembly of the gods at Babjlon on New- 
Year's Day, whither they came in their sacred boats to convene in 
the Ubsukkina of Marduk's temple. 

^ tiru from eiiru, surround, fortify. See note on IV 141 and d/u 
e-ib-ru, a fortified city, Keilschrifttexte aus Boghazkoi, i p. 24, 33 ; 25, 41 . 
To this root belong certainly abaru, enclosure, and aburris, securely, 
in security. Luckenbill reads I'p-ra, covered (?). 

* idrtiki, also /, / possible in this root, is dissimilated from idniku, see 
Brockeljiann, Vcrgl. Gram. p. 253f. allu certainly not ' basket ' or ' yoke ", 

The Gods build Babylon 

/ j 

37. What shall be our sign of gratitude before thee ? 

38. Come let us make a shrine whose name is called 

39. " A chamber it is verily of our night rest " : come 
let us repose therein. 

40. Come we will found a shrine as an abode for thee. 

41. On the day when we shall arrive^ we will repose 

42. When Marduk heard this, 

43. His countenance beamed profusely as the sun. 

44. ' So shall Babylon be whose undertaking ye have 

45. Let a city be built, a well-protected^ shrine be 

46. The Anunnaki seized the pickaxe ; 

\(^. For one year they were making its bricks. 

47. When the second year arrived 

47k they raised the top of Esagila the imitation of 
the nether sea. 

48. They built the lofty stage-tower on the nether- 

48^ For Marduk, who is Enlil and Ea,' they estab- 
lished his temple as his abode. 

as the lexicons and even recent writers admit. The word is not only 
associated with daraktt, Delitzsch, H. W. 228 ; Streck, Assurb. ii 186 
n. I, but with saba/u and iiaM; sdbii al-lu nds '■?^marri zabil iuphkku, 
' Holders of the pick (.'), bearers of the spade, carriers of the trencher 
basket', VAB. iv 240, 53, and iisaVsi ifal-lu, 68, 26. ai/u is certainly 
a loan-word from y-rf/, see the remarks by Genouillac, OLZ. 1908, 
469, and Foeme du Paradis, 41, 30. The word al-dii, 9^^al-du = aldu, 
VR. 24, 15 = ATU. ii 70, 8, is a general name for farm implements. 
See Code Ham. §§ 253, 254, and nig-al-di — eriltu, irrigation, farming, 
and al-du, to excavate, Sum. Gr. 202. 

* Luckenbill's reading is naturally correct. 

* Cf. Streck, Assurb. 300, 10, Esagila . . . gabri apsf. 
' Cf. VAB. iv 106, 23. 

« For Marduk with title Enlil see VAB. iv 60, 2 ; CT. 24, 50, 47406 
Obv. 6. Or read ' Enlil and Ea established &c.' (?). 

174 Tablet VI 

49. ina tar-ba-a-ti ^ ma-har-su-nu u-[sat-]ba-am-ma 

49^. sur-sis E-[sag-i]la i-na-at-ta-lii kar-na-a-su 

50. ul-tu E-[sag]-ila i-pu-su si-pir-su 
50^. """A-nun-na-ki su-nu pa-rak-ki-su-nu ib-tas-mu 

51. a-na '^-sag-i[d\ kup-paf^ apsi kali-su-nu pah-ru 

51b i-na paramahhi ' sa ib-nu-u su-bat-su « 

52. Hani abe-su ta-su us-te-sib I 

52^. an-nam Ba-ab-i-H ' su-bat na-ar-me-ku-un 

53. nu-ga-a * as-ru-us-su ^ ta-sw 

53*^. li-si-bu-ma ilani rabuti 

54. zar-ba-bu i' is-ku-nu ina ki-ri-e-tl [us-sa-bu] 

54b. ul-tu ^- ni-^?^-tam is-ku-nu kl-rib-su 

55. ina E-sag-ila Hkara " ii-tu-u : 
SS^. \ip-pat-tar ma-'\kal-tvi 

56. kun-na te-ri-e-ti iis-sii-i'-a ^^ u-su-ra-a-te 

^ Luckenbill's restoration n-sat-ba-avi-ma demands rather tabrdti, 
and this I take to be the meaning, iarbati being due to metathesis. 
Ebeling reads u-h'-ba-am-ma, and regards Marduk as the subject. 

^ The ' horns ' are employed only of ziggtirats in the inscriptions of 
Asurbanipal, see Streck, Assurb. 52 n. 4. One expects, therefore, 
E-levien-an-ki, but Esagila is probably employed in a comprehensive 
sense. In the tablet which gives the measurements of this temple and 
its tower only the name Esagila occurs, Scheil, Esagil, 10-14. 

^ Here A. means the great gods for whom chapels were added in the 

' Cf Craig, RT. ii 13, 7, sabit kippat kigalli, 'who holds the bowl of 
hell ', bowl being used to describe the shape of the lower world, and for 
kuppalti, bowl, see CT. 4, 30 A 7. Uncertain. Luckenbill, sa pat 
apsi; Ebeling, ana i^) pat apsi. One expects mihrit apsi, see line 47b 

'' Here paramahhu refers to the central chapel dedicated to Marduk, 

Feast of the Gods 175 

49. In admiration before them they caused it to 
rise up, 

49^^. Beholding the horns - of Esagila from the base 

50. After they had done the work of Esagila, 
50^. These Anunnaki ^ built themselves chapels. 

51. Unto Esagila 'the bowl of the nether sea' they 

Si'^. In the great chapel which they built as his abode. 

52. The gods his fathers he caused to dwell in his 

52b 'This Babylon is the abode of your dwelling 

53. Make glad sound in its place and its 

53^^. And so the great gods sat down.'" 

54. A feast they made as they sat down to the 

54''. After they had made music therein,^^ 

55. and had drunk beer in Esagila, 
55^*. the table was cleared azvay. 

56. Laws were fixed and plans designed. 

and in the inscriptions usually named £-nmu{s)-a = bil iemi; see VAB. 
iv 302 under E-KU-a, and KAR. 109, 16 for the reading. 

' LucKENBiLL, sur-la-su, ' his board '. I cannot find a reason for this 

' NI-NIQ). * IP Imp. energeticus of nagH. 

^ Apparently same sign in 1. 52, sur (?). 

'" Line one on K. 3449 a, Obv., CT. 13, 23. 

'' zarbabu, a dish, like passuru, platter, developed the meaning table, 
vunsa, and cf. paUura rakasu, to prepare a table for a meal. Cf. ZA. 

27. 239- 

'* K. 3449 a, is-tu. 

" nigilia sakaiiu is a well-known phrase for celebrating a feast, see 
Delitzsch, H. W. 447, and cf. JRAS. 192 1, 187, 27. 

" KAS often for KAS = likaru. Text entirely conjectural. 

" So also Ebeling, but the text seems to have more words. Read 
ana da-ri-il after upural cf. Polme du Paradis, 48, 28-9, and 52, 18. 

176 Tablet VI 

57. man-za-az sami-e u irsi-tim sak-\iiTi-ma\ \-na ilaiii 


58. ilani rab(iti ha-am-i^r/-^z^-«z^ u-si-bu-ma 

59. ilani simati sibitti-su-nu a-iia \kal nise simati\ 

' uk-tin-nu 

60. na-si-ma "'"En-lil "■"\mitta-sii 71 ina] pani-su-nu 


61. sa-par sa i-te-ip-pu-su '^ i-mu-ru ilani abe-su 

62. i-mu-ru-ma '-"kasta ki-i nu-uk-ku-lat bi-nu-su 

63. ep-sit i-te-ip-pu-su i-na-a-du abe-su 

64. is-si-ma' ''"A-num ina puhur ilani i-kab-bi 

65. ""kasta it-te-si-ik * si-i 

66. im-bi-ma sa '"'kaili ki-a-am [i//wi'-]sa 

67. i-su'' a-rik il-ti-nu-um-ma^ sa-nu-[um-ma sa ] 

67^ sal-su sum-sa ''"^'"^^'BAN^'^ ina same 

68. li-kin-ma cris"-oral-la-sa 

o o 

' Stations refers here to the places assigned to the two groups of gods 
described in Hne 29. 

^ Cf SBP. 164, 33, and Bab. vi 107, 4. The gods of the lower world 
are meant, i. e. the Anunnaki. 

' These seven gods of fates follow the fifty Anunnaki in SBP. 164, 34, 
and clearly refer to the Igigi or to part of them. The Igigi include the 
great gods of the upper world, and are sometimes in a technical sense 
identified with the seven Pleiades. The gods of the seven planets, 
Shamash, Sin, Marduk, Ninurta, Nergal, Ishtar, and Nebo are probably 
meant here. For the fifty gods and the seven gods who cause Enlil 
to take his place in Kenur, chapel of Ninlil in Nippur, see also my 
edition of Ni. 9205, Obv. II 21-3 in R. A. vol. 19, p. 72. 

* i. e. Marduk. 

^ K. 3449a, im-kur-ma, 'he received'. Cf. IV 37 and note. 

" Cf IV 41. K. 3449 a, sa-pa-ra. 

' illi for issi, from lasH, is another example of the Assyrian pronuncia- 

Astronomy and MardiiUs Weapons 177 

57. The stations^ of heaven and earth were arranged 
amotig- the gods all of them. 

58. The great gods who are fifty sat down,^ 

59. The gods of fates who are seven fixed the fates 
for alt ineii.^ 

60. Enlil * lifted '" his toothed sickle and laid it before 

61. The" net which he had made for himself the eods 
his fathers beheld. 

62. They saw the bow, how skilfully was its construc- 
tion made. 

63. The deed which he did his fathers praised. 

64. Anu lifted up his voice, speaking in the assembly 
of the gods ; 

65. He kissed the bow (saying), ' This is ' 

66. He named the titles of the bow thus ; — 

67. 'Long wood' is the first (name); the second 
(name) is 

67^. Its third name is the ' Bow Star in heaven 

68. He fixed its location {in the heavens ) 

tion of s as j. See also lil-si-ma with Babylonian variant li-is-si-e-ma, 
VII 115. 

' K. 3449 <z, il-ia-lik. 

' K. 3449 a, ii-su and lu li-te-nu-um-ma. BM. 54228, 4, is-iin-nti- 
\um-ma\. King, ii 63. 

'» Usually called ^''■^^"■^kak-BAN, Br. 5294. Canis Major, Kugler, 
Siernkunde, ii 86, but another kakkah£j^]\i is identified with Spica by 
Kugler, ibid. The Bow Star was usually identified with the war-goddess 
Ishtar, and even her planet Venus was called the Bow Star, Virolleald, 
hhtar. xxix 15. Technically Sirius in Canis Major was known as 
KAK-Sl-DI, and the Bow Star is €, o-, 8, t, of Canis Major + <c, 
X Pup|iis, Kugler, S/ernkunde, Ergdnzungen, 26, and for the Bow Star 
identified with Ishtar, see p. 62, 12 and p. 219; PSB.\. 1909, PI. IV 3. 
This seems to be the only passage in which the bow-shaped star is 
assignc'l to Marduk. See also Tammuz and Ishtar, 169 f. 

" K. 3449 «,^'-"- 

2687 M 

178 Tablet VI 

69. ul-tu si-ma-a-ti sa [ u-U-mii\ 

70. [id-]di-ma 'V"kussa-]i/(; ] 

71. [ -]nu- um ina 

72. «)i-hu-ru-ma [ilani rabuti 

73 '^"Marduk 

74 u KI-RU^ 




78. ......•••• 

79. u-sa-tir 

80. a-na z^-x\-^^x-nu 

81. ip-su pi-[su amatam izakkar\ li din''- 

82. Ut-bi-ku fii- 

82^^ u an-ni 

83. lu-u su-Lis-ku-ma ma-ru[kar-ra-du] 

83b li-is- 

84. e-nu-su * lu-u su-tu-rat ni ru za 

85. li-pu-us-ma ri-e-ut sal-mat kakkadi ^ bi na 

86. ah-ra-tas tj-me la ma-se-e ^ dd-li-li-lu 

87. li-kin' ana abe-su nin-[da-bi-]e (?) \i'a-bii-te\\'^ 

88. za-nin-us-su-un \\-pu-rd su- 

89. li-se-si-in kut-[rin-na] sa \ta-a^bu \_na-'\pis-\_su a-na- 

a-si\ ^ 

' "same u irsi-tim ? 

^ Ebeling, li-sik-\ku\. Clearly more signs at the end. 

' Anu. 

" Cf. Ill 49, enuti, Var. of i^'^Anuii. Ebeling and Luckenbill, 
' his rule '. 

^ LucKENBiLi^ ri-e-ut-ni, ' sovereignty over us'. Ebeling's restoration 
is sal-ma/ [SAG-']DU, and at end ia-bi-na-as-su lilliku, 'may they come 
into his protection'. For sal-mat SAG-DU see VII 32. In defence 


Gods praise Mardiik 1 79 

69. After he had fixed the fates of 

70. He founded his throne 


72. The great gods assembled 





79. He made to exceed 

80. For his {their) titles 

81. He ^ opened his mouth saying a word; 'May 

82. Let them pour out 


83. Verily he has been exalted, he the heroic son and 
may he 


84. His Anuship verily is made surpassing 

85. May he shepherd the dark-headed peoples 

86. Forever that his praise be not forgotten 

87. May he establish for his fathers the great cult 

88. Their upkeep may \i& perform 

89. May he cause to be smelled incense whose odour 
is pleasing unto us. 

of reiii-ni, Tab. VII 1 1 1 may be cited. See also CT. 25, 47, 9, Marduk 
'ia kima rei{i) i lu-ru Hani, 'Who like a shepherd has mustered the gods '; 
and VAB. iv 60, 3. See note on 1. 93, and PSBA. 1910, 164. 

' Cf. la mase" da-U-lt-ku-nu, PSBA. 191 2, 77, 40, Or restore du- 
bi = kdli-si-na ip-le-ia-su, 'that all his deeds be not forgotten', and 
cf. VII18? Or VII 30 f.? 

' The text has an erasure (?) here. * Cf. BA. v 319, 13. 

" napisu, odour. See KAR. 158 R. 16 = JRAS. 192 1, 177 and n. 4. 

M 2 

i8o Tablet VI 

90. tam-sil ina sami-e i-te-ip-su[*''**''*Iku Bab-ilani] ^ 

91. li-ad-di-ma E-sag-[iIa ina irsiti ana ]-su 

92. la 2.-si-i -ta-su gur ? HI 

93. ip-su pi-su l-iahri^" li-sik-ku ^ 

94. nin-da-bi-e li-in-na-sa-a ilu-si-na '''^'is-tar-si-na 

95. al im-sa-a ila-si-na li-kil-la 

96. ma-«-na lis-te-pa-a pa-rak-ki si-na li-tep-sa 

97. lu-mes-sa-ma * sal-mat kakkadi i-la-ni 

98. [a-na «/-]a-si ma-la su-ma ° ni-im-bu-u su-u lu-u 


99. [ i ] nim-bi-e-ma ha-sa-a ^ su-me-e-su 

100. si-ka-tus '' lu-ii su-pa-a ip-se-tus lu-u mas-la 

loi. ''"Marduk sa ul-tu si-ti-su im-bu-u-su a-bu-su 

102. sa-ki-in me-hu-uh-ku-tu^^ mu-dah-hi-du li-ri-sun " 

' Restored from Thureau-Dangix, Ritueh, 136, 274, '^^'^Iku Esagila 
iarnhl same u irsiti. The star DIL-GAN(iku) is identified with Cetus-f- 
Aries, and the name means Canal Star, see Weidner, Handbuch, 85, 
col. I I, and Kugler, Slernkunde, Erganzungen, 217, star of Babylon. 
Everything on earth was supposed to be a replica of something in 
heaven, and the heavenly pattern of Esagila was the Canal Star. 

'^ Read su-iu-ris ? lisikku ? hh'kktt ? lipikku ? My translation rests 
upon a doubtful derivation, III' of iiakii. The renderings of Ebeling 
and Luckenbill are most doubtful. A root sdkti, sdku, would explain 
the form better. 

' Lines 93-7 clearly refer to Jtise or amelizti, and it is possible that 
w'-p?'] is the correct reading in 1. 85, re'ut ni-h'Q). 

* mastl, be wide, is employed in exactly the opposite sense with salmat 
kakkadu in SB P. 134, 44. 

' mala = as many as, is really a noun governing the genitive, and 


The Names of Marduk i8i 

90. As an imitation of what he has made in heaven, 
[that is of the Canal Star (star) of Babylon,] 

91. May he design Esagila [upon earth for his ], 

92. Not to depart 

93. If he uttered command let them ^ 7nake offerings in 

94. May cult offerings be brought to their god and 

95. May they not forget their god but support (him). 

96. Their land (?) may they adorn and their abodes 
may they make. 

97. And may the gods make wide the dark-headed 

98. As for us by as many names as we have named 
him verily he is our god. 

99. Let us name his fifty names. 

100. His triumph verily is glorious and his deeds ^ are 

loi. Marduk whom from his origin^ his father Anu 
had named, 

102. ' The institutor of enricher of their store- 

means ' fulness of. See Ungnad, Briefe, p. 218 note b on no. 249, and 
p. 334. The full construction here should be mala hime siima. 

* For hamsd; of. VII 123. See line 117 below for restoration. 

' Probably for hkka/ii, as Ebeling renders the word, h'kkalti, peak, 
eminence, and victory, Delitzsch, H. W. 659, has clearly a s, as the 
derivative sakikis, SBP. 234, 6 testifies. In PSBA. 1908, 266 ff., I con- 
nected the root iakaku, pierce, harrow, with this word, and cf. Streck, 
Bab. ii 32 and 234. 

" ipsctu probably refers to the creation of the world and the con- 

^ The word refers to Marduk's being begotten by Ea in I 78 ff., but 
line I 102 preserves a tradition that Anu (father of the gods) was his 
father. Anu as father of Enlil and Ea is spoken of in this sense 
frequently, i. e. as father of any one of the gods. 

^'' Reading extremely uncertain. 

" For hit uril, building attached to a temple for retaining sacrificial 

1 82 Tablet VI 

103. sa ina kakki-su a-bu-bu ^ ik-mu-ii sa-bu-ti ^ 

104. ilani abe-su i-ti-ru ina sap-sa-ki 

105. lu-u ma-ru-ti-su sa ilani ni-bu-ii-su-ma 

106. ina nu-ri-su nam-ru lit-tal-la-ku su-nu ka-ia-na 

107. nise sa ib-nu-u si-kit-ti nap-iz^^ 

108. dul-li ilani i-mid-ma su-nu ip-pa-as-hu 

109 MUL (?) e-ni-nu 

110. lu-u ut-nin-na mit-\_ha-riS\ nap-lu-su-su-nu * sa- 


111. ^'"yi^L-xw-duk^ lu-u ilu ba-\iii ilani ka-ya-ma. 

1 1 2. mu-tib lib-bi ''"A-nun-na-ki mu-sap-[sih ]-a 

1 1 3. "'"Ma-ru-du-uk-ku ** lu-u tu-kul-tu mat-su [unise-]su 

1 1 4. sa-a-su-ma lit-ta-'-da i-su ' nise 

115. ''•Bara-sag-kus-u " iz-zi-iz u sir-ri-sa kas-\sii it- 


116. ra-pa-as lib-ba-su la-a-'i-it '- ka-ras- [su] 

animals, see Clay, Miscellaneous Insp-iptions, no. 46, 2, and VAB. iv 
94, 25 wiih note. 

' For abubu, name of a weapon, see Tab. IV 49. 

- Note the commentary K. 2107, 30, ''^Zi-st = ndsik la-hi-ti, King, 
Creat. ii, PI. 62, and cf. Tab. VII 41. For j? = lubbil, cf. CT. 15, 11, 9, 
S!-si-gi, with SBP. 48, 49, sig-sig-gi = usibbanni. 

^ For napsafi Or read nab-nitl 

" Sic! One expects -li-7ia. ^ Cf. ZA. 10, 295, 21. 

* Sign KU perhaps with value duk here. So Ebeling. Luckenbill 
reads ma-ru-tus, and a decision between these two readings is difficult. 

' Cf. K. 107, 24. 

* This title of the older god Asaru or Asar-ltt-dug is a late fabrication 
of the scribes to devise a title which would describe the new god of 



Gods praise Marduk 183 

103. Who with his weapon the ' Cyclone ' bound the 

104. And saved the gods his fathers from distress. 

105. ' Verily his sonship is of the gods ' is his name. 

106. In his bright light may they walk constantly. 

107. Upon the peoples whom he created, the creation 
of the breath of life, 

108. He imposed the service of the gods and these 
were pacified. 

109 to implore, 

no. Verily they shall implore him in unison' to look 
upon them. 

111. Marduk verily is the divine creator of the gods 

112. Who gladdens the heart of the Anunnaki and 
makes to repose the 

113. Truly Marduk is the help of his land and of his 

114. Him may they praise, the support of the people 

115. He the god Barasagkusu stood up and held her 
rein (? ?) in his hand}^ 

1 16. Wide is his heart, warming is his compassion. 

Babylon in the role of Ninurta, the original hero of the combat with 
Tiamat. Ninurta was a sun-god and amar-ud means ' youth of the sun ', 
whence Marudukku, Marduk. 

" Probably cognate of Hebrew uld, ulua. 

'" This title of Marduk has not been found in the theological vocabu- 
laries, and is not preserved in the text of Tab. VII. The name means 
sail parakke, ' He who is solicitous for sanctuaries', cf. Shurpu, ii 122 ; 
Gudea, Cyl, A 29, 2. 

" Reading conjectural; cf. BA. V 311, 8. 

'^ Root DH?, to blaze, burn. Note the N. Pr. Nusku-la-it-ildni, and 
Mitu, light, in la-it-ka islahhatia, ' Thy heat warms (the orphan and 
widow) ', K. 2132, 6. 

1 84 Tablet VI 

1 1 7. '^"Lugal-dim-me-ir-an-ki-a ^ sa sum-su i nim-bu-u 


118. zik-ri pi-i-su nu-sa-as-ku-u eli ilani abe-sii 

119. lu-u be-lum ilani sa sami-e u irsi-tim ka-li-su-nu 

1 20. sarru ia ina tak-pi-ti-su ^ ilani lu-u -us 


121. '^"na-ri-dim^-nie-ir-an-ki-[a] sum-su sa-ni iz-kur 

a-sir ilani ka-la-ma 

122. sa ina sami-e u irsi-tim it-ta-ad-du-u su-bat-ni 

ina pu-us-ki 

123. ana ''"Igigi u ''^"A-nun-na-ki u-za-'i-zu man-za-zu 

124. ana su-me-su ilani lis-tar-i-bu li-nu-su ina sub-ti ' 

125. ^^" K'izx-Wx-diig ^ sum-su sa im-bu-u a-bu-su ''"h- 


126. su-u lu-u nu-ru sa ilani gis-tu-u '' dan-nu 

127. sa ki-ma sedi ^ la-mas-si uballitu mati 

128. ina sa-as-me dan-ni e-ti-ru su-bat-ni ina puski 

' le-el ilani sa same u initim, K. 2107, 19. Cf. VAB. iv 72, 50. 
See 1. 119. 

^ For takbitul Cf. lahbati (PL), K. 1290 R. 15. Luckenbill reads 
iak-pir-ii. At the end us-lab-lu IIP of basH is hardly possible. 

^ The sign is dim. Sum. Gram. p. 265, Var. ol dim, 1. 117. 

* Na-ri = asdru. See the same title of Marduk in Weissbach, 
Miscel. 37, 49, na-ri ''■■Ammtiaki-ge =■ asir '^"Afiumiaki, and dsir ilani, 
K. 2107, 14, 'Convener of the gods'. 

^ A reading ai-ru-ti is possible, PI. of asm, submissive, but the parallel 
passage in a text published by FiscuES, Journal of the Victoria Institute, 
vol. 29. p. 58, 23, disproves this. There we read i-nu-ul ina sub-ti 
ip-lah amelii nakru, ' The enemy trembled in (his) habitation and feared '. 


Heroic deeds of Marduk 185 

117. He is 'Lord of the gods of heaven and earth' 
whose name let us proclaim in our assembly. 

118. We have exalted the commands of his mouth 
above those of the gods his fathers. 

119. So he is lord of the gods of heaven and earth — 
all of them. 

1 20. The king at whose cotnmand the gods 

121. ' Nari-dimmer-anki ' * as a second name he called 
him, the musterer of all the gods. 

122. Who in heaven and earth appointed our dwelling- 
place in time of distress. 

123. Who allotted locations to the Igigi and Anun- 

124. At his titles may the gods tremble and may they 
quake in (their) dwelling-places. 

125. Asarludug is his name which his father Anu 
called him. 

126. He is the light of the gods,* the mighty 

127. Who as consoling satyr and the protecting satyr 
gave life to the land, 

128. And in mighty combat saved our dwelling-place 
in distress. 

* The reading of the last sign is doubtful ; lar is possible. The 
meaning of this title of Marduk remains unknown. Asar or asaru is 
said to mean hirik vierisli, bestower of verdure ; lu = belu, and the last 
element (if dug) may mean tabtu or (if iar) kiVsdti. The title is explained 
by Marduk la h'pti, ' Marduk of judgement', CT. 24, 42, 97, which is 
probably false. 

' Loan-word from {gi-es-lu) IGI-DU = alaridu, Syl. B', Assur text 

* Marduk as god of light is certainly not the meaning of his oldest 
title Asaru. See 1. 113. 

" The sign is miscopied for gidim-ma, and for the form of. PBS. v 
126, 7. 

1 86 Tablet VI 

129. ''"Ks2ir\h.-dtig ''^"namtilaku 1 sa-nis im-bu-u ilu ? 


130. sa ki-ma bi-nu-ti-su-ma ik-se-ru-ni ^ ilani ab-tu-ti 

131. be-lum sa ina sip-ti-su elli-tim li-bal-li-tu ilani 

mittiti ^ 

132. mu-ab-bit ig-ru-ti'' za-'i-r?^ 

133. '^"As2ir-\n-dug^ ''"Nam-ru^ sa in-na-bu-[u sal-]su 


134. ilu el-lu mu-ul-lil a-lak-ti-ni 

135 ik(?)-bu-u An-sar '^"Lah-mu u '^"La-ha- 


136. B.-na [ilani mare-]su-nu iz-zak-ru 

137. ni- ni-it-ta-bi ' sume-su 

138. ki-na* zuk-ra 

139. ih-du-u-[wfl: is-tc-ynu-A zi-kir-su-un 

140. ina^ ub-su-ukkln-na ka us-ta-ad-flf/-su-nu is-kat- 


141. sa ma-ru kar-ra-du mu-tir gi-mil-li-ni 

142. ni-i-nu sa za-ni-ni " nu-ul-li sum-su 

' Loan-word; cf. CT. 24, 27, 24. 

2 kiseru, to restore, usually with abidtt (ruins), VAB. iv 335. See 
Th.-Dangin, RA. II, 95- See VII 28. 

' See note on VII 11. 

* igru, Sumerian gab, Syn. Mlu, &c., Meissner, SAI. 7637, where 
read the sign 7784. e-gir pa-ni, plotters, IV R. 54, 30. 

■^ Represented by ditto mark as in CT. 24, 15, 133. 

^ Apparent Semitic as explained in 1. 134. 

' Here begins 92629 Rev. in King, Creat. ii, PI. 37. 

» 92629, ki-i-na. ' Ibid., i-na. 

'° Portions in the sense of spheres of influence in the pantheon. This is 
also the meaning in the title of Marduk, mu-za-'iz is-ki-e-lu, Th.-Dangin, 
Rituels, 129, 14. uku has invariably the form isketi in the PI. ; cf. mu- 
ad-du-u is-ki-e-ii, VS. i 36 I 19; here the subject is ■^■A-MAL (1. 17) 
or Mar-Mlii^). H^'Mar-biti {DUMU E) was a god of Maliki near to 
or a part of Der, Harper, Leiiers, 1063 Rev. 6-7, and for Mar-biti as 

Titles of Marduk 187 

129. And secondly they named Asarludug 'god 
Namtilaku ', the god 

130. Who restored the destroyed gods to be even as 
his own creation. 

131. The lord, who by his holy incantation made to 
live the dying gods. 

132. Destroyer of plotters, hater of. .... . 

133. And Asarludug 'god Namru' which was called 
his third name, 

134. The bright god who brightens our way. 

135 commanded Ansar, Lahmu and Lahamu, 

136. Speaking 7mto the gods their sons; 

137. We have , we have proclaimed his names. 

138 speak. 

139. They rejoiced as they heard their speech. 

140. In Ubsukkinaku he assigned them their portions." 

141. ' Of the heroic son our avenger, 

142. We have extolled the name, even of the care- 
taker, ' 

god of Maliki see Streck, Assitrb. ii 187. But ^^^'■A-MAL is apparently 
a god of Der, VS. i 70 IV 27, and a certain ^'•'^A-MAL-ibni was a citizen 
of Der, Harper, Letters, 430, 5. Since the late Babyl. texts do not 
distinguish MAL from E, it seems safe to render both ideograms by 
Mar-Biti. It is surprising to find a minor deity of Bar-Sippa described 
as the god who assigned the powers of the gods of heaven and earth. 
Cf. KAR. 80, 14, Shamash, mu-us-si-ku ukeli, and 35, 18 + 36, 5, Ea, 
Shamash and Marduk mmekkts isketi la lami-e u irsitim, who allot the 
portions of heaven and earth. A Mar-bili of MaUki and another at 
Barsippa are established so far as our present information warrants 
a conclusion. ^^^A-MAL or Mar-biti in V R. 46, 25 f. is identified with 
Marduk, and it may well be that the late DUMU-fi and A-£ are falsely 
derived from the oldest god of Babylon, A-mal, with whom Marduk may 
have been identified. 

" 92629 has, za-ni-nu ul-lu-\u nu-id-li l?<«-^z/], ' We whom the care- 
taker has lifted up ', etc. See VII 7 and IV 1 1 . 

i88 Tablet VII 

143. u-si-bu-ma ina ukkin-na^-su-nu i-nam-bu-u si- 

ma-a-su - 

144. ina mi-e-si ^ nag-ba*-su-nu u-zak-ka-ru-ni sum-su 

145. -'^"Asaru^ sa-rik mi'-rls-ti [sa is-]ra-a-te* u-kin-nu 


\_djip-pu'\ 6-katn e-mi-ma e-lii gil-tu-u 

On BM. 92629 there remains only the name of the 
owner of the tablet, Nabu-balat-su-ikbi. 


1. ''"AsARU sa-rik mi-ris-ti sa is-ra-a-ti u-kin-nu' 

2. ba-nu-u se-am u ki-e mu-[se-su-u ur-ki]" 

3. *'"AsARU-ALiM sa ina bit mil-ki kab-[tu ina mil-ki 

at-ru] " 

* 92629 omits na and rea.A puhri. 

^ A word simu, fate, is unknown. The example cited by Muss- 
Arnott, Lexicon, p. 1053, rests upon a misreading. Craig, RT. 54, 20 
has h-ma-/us. But no better interpretation is apparent. Luckenbill 
regards the word as simu, price, worth. 

^ Cf. King, Boundary Stones, 117, 4. 

* So read. VAR. 92629, na-gab. 

^ Tablet VII contains the names referred to here. 

« ASAR-RI {asaru), CT. 24, 15, 68. '' 92629, me. 

* iiraiu, map, city Doomsday-book; see Gautier, Dilbat, no. 13, 8; 
cf. CT. ii 45, 9, ina sasarim, upon the cadaster (?). 

' Te.xt from K. 2854 in King, Creal. i 159, and catch-line of Tab. VI. 
This title is cited in a hymn to Marduk, Th.-D., Rituch, 138, 304. 
For a study of the commentaries on the Seventh Tablet see King, ibid. 
vol. i 157-81; Langdon, PSBA. 1910, 115-23; 159-67; Ungnad, ZA. 
31, i53~5- The commentaries seem to have dissected each old Sumerian 
title into fanciful elements, and to have explained in a cabalistic manner 
the Semitic lines of the Epic which also consist in free interpretations 
of the Sumerian titles. Ungnad, ibid., attempted to explain all of the 



Commentary on Marduk's Titles 189 

143. They sat in their assembly proclaiming \\isfale, 

144. All of them mentioning in the sanctuary his 

145. Asaru bestower of husbandry, who has fixed the 
property boundaries. 


Sixth [tablet] of Enuma elis 


1. Asaru bestower of husbandry, who has fixed the 
boundaries of estates. 

2. Creator of grain and plants, causing the grass to 
spring up. 

3. Asaru-alim who in the house of counsel is powerful, 
in counsel excellent. 

Sumerian elements in the commentary by fanciful dissection of the titles, 
but it is evident that many of the comments of the scribes are based 
upon the Semitic interpretations of the lines of the Epic. The com- 
mentary is cited here by C. with reference to the plates in King, vol. ii. 
Thus, the comments on line i will be C. 51 I 1-5. See also King, 
ii 63, 6. The god Asaru written simply REC. 387 was originally 
a deity of yabur at Eridu (Langdon, Archives of Drehem, p. 25 n. 8), 
and he has, ibid., the longer title Asaru-lh-dug ; see also Huber, 
Hilprecht Anniversary Volume, 220, 12 + R. 9. He seems to have been 
translated to Babylon in the period of the First Babylonian dynasty. 
Cf. the exegesis niir iUmi =^- Asaru, CT. 29, 45, 26; Schroeder, 
KAV. 51 R. 17 = ^amal\ 

" C. 51 I 6-10, where asaru is separated into ru — bauu, sar = se'u + 
ku and also sar {ma) = asu + urku. Kojg, ii 63, 8 has se-im u gu-e and 
a comment, gu-um = si-hir-iu. 

" The title is explained by la baldti, CT. 24, 42, 98, 'he of life', as 
god of healing. The explanation here is purely imagmative, based upon 
absurd analysis oi asaru. C. 51 I 11-16. 

I90 Tablet VII 

4. ilani li-tak-ku-u a-dir-[tam it-ta-ha-zu] ^ 

5. "'"AsARU-ALiM-NUN-NA ka-ru-bu nu-ur [a-bi a-li-di- 


6. mus-te-sir te-rlt ''"A-nim ''^"En-lil [u '^"E-a] 

7. su-u-ma za-nin-su-nu mu-ad-du-u [su-bat-sun] * 

8. sa su-ku-us-su ^ hegallu ^ us-sa-[a ® ana kali-hi-titi] 

9. ''"Tu-TU ' ba-an te-dis-ti-su-nu [su-u-ma] * 

10. li-lil sa-gi^" su-nu-ma su-nu lu-u [pa-as-hu] 

' C. 51 I 17-20. Here begins BM. 91 139, King, Creat. ii, PI. 38. 

^ Restored by King, Creat. i 216, 3. The title is followed by maru 
rehii sa apsi, IV R. 3*5 26; Nies, HRET. 22, 25 + 184. 

' karubu is apparently a translation of a!im-nun-tia ; ka-ru-bu, title 
of Ea, KAR. 59, 31, and alim-nun-na =■ Ea, CT. 24, 14, 31 ; alim = 
kusarikhi, fish-ram, symbol of Ea, see Tab. I 142 and note, karubu 
has the same meaning as karibu, ' one who prays ', an image of a 
mythical monster placed at the gates of temples and palaces ; ^'■^ka-ri-bu 
sa imitti bdb papahi, King, Chrotiides, ii 84, 16, and see Scheil, Bel. 
Perse, iv 167, 6, the images at the gates of a temple in Susa, lamazati 
u karibdii. The word kuribu has the same sense ; Messerschmidt, 
KTA. 75, 24, ^^"Lahme ^^^ku-ri-bi, at the two sides of a gate. The 
derivation of all these forms from kardbu is certain. Cf. Sum. alam 
sub-sub-be, a statue which prays (for the king and people), i. e. karibu, 
PBS. X 152. The meaning 'interceding statue', more especially statue 
of the mythical fish-ram of Ea, then came to mean 'intercessor', 
protector, and in CT. 18, 27, 13 karubu = rubu. This 'intercessor', a 
figure of a mythical monster, is clearly identical with the Hebrew kerub, 
cherub, and possibly to be identified with the fish-ram, which also 
appears on the Zodiac of Dendera in Egypt for Capricorn. See Hinke, 
A New Boundary Stone, p. 102. The statements concerning this word 
in the lexicons is erroneous. 

* This restoration from VI 122 suits the context better than iskett, 
VI 140. 

^ sukultu has the meaning ' house ', as well as ' treasures '. See the 
gloss on TE-UNU{^ukutta) = Mat, BL. 32, 24. 

^ gii'^g, Aegat- /a u-us-si. 

' tu-tu (REC. 147, tud) appears first in the time of the First 


Commentary on Mardiik's Titles 191 

4. The gods waited (for him) as they fell on sorrow. 

5. Asaru-alim-nunna, intercessor,^ I'ght of the father 
his begetter. 

6. Who directs the ordinances of Ann, Enlil and Ea. 

7. He is their caretaker, who determines their 

8. From whose store hotise goes forth abundance to 
all of them. 

9. He is Tutu, maker of their restoration.^ 

10. Let him purify their sanctuaries and let them be 
at peace. 

Babylonian Dynasty and generally without the determinative dingir. 
The early Sumerian title is du-du. In Ham. Code, iii lo the king is nardm 
Tu-tu, where this Sumerian word (= muallidu) is already a divine title, 
and here it designates Nabfi of Barsippa. For Tu-tu and ^-Tu-tu in 
n. pra. of this period see Ranke, Personal Names, 208 ; it then dis- 
appears in onamastica until the late period where it has been found 
in only three names, Erba-^-T; Ina-kibi-^-T; Gahal-^-T. The title has 
not been found at all in Assyrian names. In a commentary on incan- 
tations ''•7z^-/a la me ellilti idii (' who knows the pure waters') he is iden- 
tified with Kug-sud, a lustration god, and with Urbadda, one of the seven 
sons ofEnmesarra, RA. 16, 150, \2. Here Marduk, god of incantation, 
is of course intended. The title tu-iu or muallidu, 'begetter', is clearly 
not of Sumerian origin, and never occurs in Sumerian religious texts. 
The title is admitted into the list of Marduk titles, CT. 24, 27, 30, and 
a commentary K. 2107, 21 has '^- Tu-tu = mu'allid Hani muddis Hani. 
This title carries complete evidence for the Semitic origin of the Seventh 

* C. 56 I 1-4. See also King, ii 63, 10 = i 176, 5, where a com- 
mentary cites this line, and Var. Rm. 395 [ibid, ii 62), 1. 4, ba-ni te-dis- 
ti-su-nu. 54228 has the note a-lid Q) [King, MU] Hani sa mahazi- 
\su-nu uddusu'], and Rm. 2538, sa ina Bdb-ili [tediltam eppusu\, and 
ibid, ii 63, 16, 'i-TU+TU sdpik ladi. and '^TU+TU <i-Marduk i^sa) 
iam-tum i- . . . 

' This explanation, which refers to rebuilding temples, is a false 
interpretation of Tu-tu. 

'" 91139, sag, C. 56, 5-9, where du — sagil, see PSBA. 1910, 118. 
Here the Sumerian text obviously explains a Semitic line and has 
no connexion with the title Tu-tu. 

193 Tablet VII 

11. lib-ni-ma sipti ^ ilani li-[nu-hu] 

12. ag-gis - lu--te-bu-u li-ni-'-u [i-rat-sun] 

13. lu-ii su-us-ku-u-ma ina puhur^ ilani 

14. ma-am-man ina ilani su-a-su * la um-[das-sal] 

15. (''"Tu-tu)° '^"Zi-UKKiN-NA na-pis-ti um-ma-ni [ilani]^ 

16. sa li-kin-nu an ^ ilani sami-e el-lu-[ti] 

17. al-kat-su-un is-ba-tu-ma ^^ li-ad-du-ii [rik-si-su-un] 

18. ai im-ma-si i-na " a-pa-ti ip-se-ta-[su kullati-si-na] ^- 

19. P"Tu-tu) 13 ^'"Zi-KUG sal-sis" im-bu-ii mu-kil te- 


20. ili sa-a-ri ta-a-bi be-el tas-me-e u ma-ga-ri 

21. mu-sab-si si-im-ri u ^' ku-bu-ut-te-e mu-kin hegalli '* 

* £N; 91139, sip-li. C. 56, 10-13. The line may refer to the 
rituals of incantation in which the curse of Marduk is uttered against 
the demons whereby the gods, enraged against man because of his sins, 
are appeased and the demons expelled. At any rate there is no reference 
in Book IV to Marduk's use of the ' curse ' in his combat with Tiamat. 
A title of Marduk in K. 5233 does refer to this aspect of Marduk's 
character, Marduk sa iu-u-su . . ., King, i 180. ^Tu-tu is also explained 
as a god of incantation, ibid. 1. 4, ^-Marduk h ina mii-kug-gi-su. . . . 
In VI 131 there is a clear reference to a legend that IMarduk did employ 
a curse in his combat with Tiamat, as his father Ea had done in subduing 
Apsfi. If VII II refer to this part of the ancient myih, omitted in 
Book IV, then the translation is ' Verily he created the curse and the 
gods reposed '. 

' Jhd., pu-hur. C. 56, 19-23, for which see PSBA. 1910, 119. 
^ Ibid., sa-a-hi. 

^ Omitted on K. 8522, i (CT. 13, 26), or represented by MIN. 
° K. 2107, 29 has naphar for ummanu. Here begins 35506 (= King, 
ii 46). 

' This title appears only here and CT. 24, 27, 31. 

The Titles of Mardiik 193 

1 1 . Let him create the curse and verily the gods 
shall be calmed. 

12. Lo, they came up in rage and lo, they turned 
back [their breasts]. 

13. Verily he was lifted up in the assembly of the 

14. Among the gods not any one makes himself like 
unto him. 

15. (Tutu) Zi-ukkin/ life of the host of the gods, 

16. Who established the pure heavens for the gods, 

17. And who controlled their paths fixing [their 

18. Let not his deeds, all of them, be forgotten among 
pale-faced men. 

19. Tutu they named thirdly Zi-kug who maintains 

20. The god of sweet breath,'" lord of grace and mercy. 

21. He who causes to exist treasures and riches," 
establisher of plenty. 

' 35506, a-na. 

" See Tab. V 6. The line refers to Jupiter as Nibiru and his supposed 
control over the movements of the planets. 

'" 35506. iu-^- " K. 8522, ina. 

'^ C. 61 II 1-7 + 69, 3-9. " K. 8522 omits or has MIN. 

" i. e. the third name of Tutu. 

^^ C. 61 II 8-13, which reads the title ^^'^'■Tu-tu-an-jiu zi-kug-ge, and 
for viukil this text had mukin. 

'* Idru tabu is a free translation of Zi-kug (napilti elliti), ' holy breath 
of life '. The breath of a god was supposed to bring assistance to men. 
So Asurbanipal says sa ana sdr-ka tdbi upaliliu, ' (I am he) who waits 
for thy sweet breath ', Klauber, PRT. i i 2 R. 4, and a prayer to Marduk 
has the line lublul ina sdri-ka, BA. v 312, 21. See also the prayer 
to Tutu, King, Magic, 18 R. 3, sdr-ka tabu lizikamma napiltim lirik, 
' May thy sweet breath blow and lengthen (my) life '. 

" 91139 and 35506 omit. '* 91 139, hega^-^a- 

" simru from iamaru, heap up. See VAB. iv 360. Same root as 
Heb. "IDD, JOD. In Babylonian the root occurs as saramu, Bab. iv 
no, 15. 

2687 N 

194 Tablet VII 

22. sa mim-ma-nP i-su^ a-na ma-'a--di-e u-tlr-ru 

23. i-na pu-us-ki ^ dan-ni ^ ni-si-nu sar*-su ta-a-bu 

24. lik-bu-u Ht-ta-i'-du ^ lid-lu-la^ da-li-li-su 

25. (''"Tu-tu) ^'"Aga-kug ina ribi-i' li-sar-ri-hu * ab- 

ra-a-te * 

26. be-el sip-tu '" elli-tim " mu-bal-lit mi-i-ti 

27. sa an" ilani ka-mu-ti " ir-su-u ta-ia-ru ^' 

28. ap-sa-na en-du " u-sa-as-si-ku ^* eli " ilani na-ki- 

ri-su ^^ 

29. a-na pa-di-su-nu ib-nu-u a-me-lu-tu^^ 

' 91 139 and 35506, mi-im-rna-ni i-si. 

' 91139, a. ' -/!■«, tm, 91139 : 35506, -ka and om. dannu. 

" Vars. .((7-ar. ^ 35506, 2(/ (j/c !). '^ 91139, /a. 

' 91 139 and 35506, ri-bi-i. * 9ii39i ^"^> ^'• 

' ' God of the holy crown ' ; or Ligir-kug, ' Holy prince ' (?). The 
following titles make no explanation of the name, and it has not been 
found elsewhere. 

'" 91139,//; 35506, «-?}!i-/;'. " Vars. f/-//-//. 

" Literally ' the dead ', those in extremis. "911 39 omits. 

" Vars. tu. '* 911391 ri. " See note on Tab. IV 114. 

" 35506, di. '* 9 II 39, ka. '^ Vars. e-li. 

"" 91139-^'''! " 91139, -a/-/?/w; 35506,//. 

^' This extremely cryptic line has received many interpretations. The 
solution of the problem depends upon the meaning of padii and the 
antecedent of sunu. If -hmu refers to the bound gods in line 28 and 
not to amelUlu the line cannot be interpreted as a Babylonian doctrine 
of the redemption of man by the mediation of Marduk. In VI 27 
ameMlu is regarded as a singular and referred to as sasu, ' him ', and 
salmat kakkadi in VI 85 is referred to by the Fem. PI. in VI 94, but 
in VI no niie is referred to by sunu. The bound gods or the 
'destroyed gods' (VI 130) who became the deities and demons of 
the lower world (VI 114) can hardly be said to have been set free or 
ransomed by the creation of mankind, but from one point of view man 
was created to ' enrich the field of the Anunnaki ', i. e. to inhabit the 
lower world after death; see Poeme du Paradis, 51 n. i. padti, as in 
Hebrew and Arabic, has primarily the meaning ' to purchase one from 
slavery', ransom, set free, although its most common meaning is ' spare, 
have mercy upon ' in Babylonian. Note the derivative pidu, ' ransom 

Mardiik as Aga-kng 195 

22. Who turned everything deficient into largeness. 

23. Whose sweet breath we smelled in sore distress. 

24. Let men speak and praise and sing his praise. 

25. Tutu fourthly may the totality of mankind glorify 
as Aga-kug.' 

26. Lord of the pure curse, who restores unto life the 

27. He who had mercy upon the bound gods.^" 

28. The yoke imposed upon the gods his enemies he 
caused to be removed, 

29. And who created mankind that he might purchase 
their ransom. ^- 

money', apparently certain in IV R. 54(747, but doubtful in Harper, 
Lell. 437 Obv. 12, ana pi-di-hi-mi, for their pardon (?) ; cf. immer 
hi-di-li{>), Ungnad, Briefe, 251, 5. The most positive argument for 
the meaning 'ransom' is the Sumerian tts-kur = padil, CT. 19, 42, 35, 
&c. This ideogram seems to mean reddm or tiebdm iiMkil, ' He caused 
the pursuer or seizer (creditor) to eat (silver)', i.e. he paid the creditor 
and released the person seized for debt {niputu). Cf. the Sumerian 
phrase sam-kur, 'eater of the price', for a seller, Thureau-Dangin, 
RTC. 13 II 14; 14 III I ; 15 III 3; NiES, op. cit. 217, &c. Perhaps 
here a-kul pi-di Q) = lip-la-am {}), ZA. x 196, 8. Hence ed, -de=fadu. 
'To cause to come forth', CT. 19, 42, 38, and Meissner, SAI. 5893. 

Vi pada be taken in this sense and ham for 'men', the line must 
be taken to mean that Marduk created man in order to ransom them 
from evil. That seems to be Jensen's view when he suggested 'urn 
sie zu erlosen ' as a translation. Ungnad in Gressmann, ibid. 23, also 
takes padii in the sense 'ransom', but interprets the line to mean that 
Marduk created man as a ransom on behalf of the bound gods. But 
a ransom to whom ? Or if in a weaker sense ' to set free ', how can 
the creation of man set free the bound gods.? Is it that they are spared 
to rule over the dead.? That is a conceivably true explanation. Dhorme, 
ibid. 73, says that these gods are set free by the intermediation of men. 
and supposes that this was told in Book VI, but the recovered text 
of Book VI states that man was made to serve the cults of the o-ods. 
King seems to overlook the difference between the gods and the ' bound ' 
gods, when he infers that man was created for their forgiveness (in 
order to serve them, the bound gods). In fact I cannot understand 
King's translation ; it does not grapple with the problem. 

But if Marduk, the Demiurge, created man that he might ransom him, 

N 2 

196 Tablet VII 

30. ri-me^-nu-u sa bul--lu-tu ba-su-u it-ti-su 

31. li-ku-na-ma ai im-ma-sa-a a-ma-tu-su 

32. ina pi-i sal-mat kakkadi * sa ib-na-a ka-ta-a-su 

33. ('^"Tu-tu) '''"Mu-KUG ina hassi(si) " ta-a-su ellu ' 

pa*-si-na lit*-tab-bal 

34. sa ina sipti'^-su elli-tim '^ is-su hu na-gab lim- 

nu-ti ^* 

35. ''"Sag-zu mu-di-e lib-bi ilani sa i-bar-ru-u '* kar-su 

36. e-pis lim-ni-e-ti la u-se-su-ii it-ti-su '* 

the problem is still more difficult. Have we here a reference to a pre- 
gnostic and mystic doctrine of Marduk's death and resurrection? At 
any rate the Babylonians did possess a mystic ceremony which told 
of Marduk's imprisonment, death, descent into the lower world, and 
resurrection, and the Greeks reported a legend of Bal's grave in Babylon. 
This ceremony is only a recasting of the older Tammuz cult, in which 
the myth of the winter and spring sun and the Epic of Creation are the 
principal factors. There is nothing either in the ceremony itself or 
in later religious te.xts to prove that any doctrine of mystical redemption 
existed; certainly nothing which would suggest that Marduk paid a 
ransom for man. The ceremony will be found at the beginning of this 

I am unable to come to any definite conclusion about this line. It 
has been translated literally, but the most probable interpretation is that 
pada means 'to set free', and that Marduk created man in order to 
exercise his power over evil by freeing them from the demons with his 
curse. This view is supported by the next line. 

' 91 139 and 35506, ot/. 2 gii^g, iu-ui. 

' The natural inference is that Marduk gave instructions to man, and 
these are referred to here, but it seems evident now with the complete 
text of Book VI before us that no such instructions existed. Ziudsuddu, 
the survivor of the Flood, did receive instructions from a deity, Poeme 
du Paradis, 213. Perhaps amatu refers to Marduk's commands to the 
gods to create man and his implied injunction that they should serve 
in the cults. 

* 91 139, kak-ka-di. 

^ This contradicts Book VI, which says that Ea created man, but 
it agrees with later Babylonian tradition, CT. 13, 35-8. Book VII 


Mii-kug mid Sagzu 197 

30. Merciful one in whose power it is to give life. 

31. May his words ^ endure and not be forgotten, 

32. In the mouth of the dark-headed peoples, whom 
his hands created.' 

II. Tutu is fifthly Mukug; ' upon his holy curse may 
they meditate.!" 

34. Who with his holy incantation removed all the 
evil ones. 

35. He is Sagzu, knower of the thoughts of the gods, 
who perceived '^ the plan. 

36. Who permitted not the evil-doers to escape from 

reveals many other traces of its late composition. See Poeme dii 
Paradis, 29-31. 

^ 91139, /m-o[ot-]^/J ; j^^^ob, i-im ha-an-su. 

' 35506, ^-/-/z^. * 9 1 1 39, /(7-a- and //-:'/. 

' This reading is proven by the bihngual commentary K. 5233, 4 
(King, i 180), '^■Tu-iu mu-kug-bi = ^^^Marduk la ina mukuggi-su. 

'" See IV R. 54, 24, In-ub-la pt-sii. Ungnad probably having in mind 
Ham. Code, Epilogue 56, atlahal-linati, 'I ruled them', renders the line 
'May Tutu guide (?) their mouth with his pure curse'; also possible. 
Dhorme and Ebeling read litlappal, ' May their mouth proclaim ', which 
is most improbable. 

" 91139, iz>-/z'. " Vzvs. el-li-li. 

" 91 139, tu. The line contains another reference to Marduk's use of 
a curse in his battle with Tiamat and her followers. 

" 35506, ib-ru-\_u. This variant gives the line a specific sense, and 
proves that it refers to Marduk's discovery of the plot of Tiamat and 
Kingu. See Book II 4, where the discovery is attributed to Ea, 
and cf. Ea's title miida libbi ildni rabiili, which refers to his discovery 
of Anu's plan to bestow eternal life upon Adapa, Pokme du Paradis, 
86, 10. This line is commented upon in K. 2107, 28, '^■Sag-zu = mtlde 
libbi ildni, Var. Sag-su{d) = libbu ruku, ' He of unsearchable heart '. 
See also Rm. 2538 (King, i 176), where a second comment is bane 
libbi \ildni\ and K. 5233, '^■Sag-zu ^-Su'g-gab — <^-Marduk mubalhl aibi 
(King, i 180 -|-K. 2107, 31). 

"> Historical present. Var. ibril. 

'« For itli= islu, see Delitzsch, H. W. 154 and ASKT. 94, 42 = 
Sum. da-la, ' Away from the side of '. 

" Cf. Book IV 108-9. 

1 98 Tablet VII 

■^"j. mu-kin puhri^ sa ilani [mu-tib] lib-bi-su-un. 

38. mu-kan-nis- la ma-gi-ri [ ^] 

39. mu-se-sir klt-ti na-[ ]* su-u 

40. sa sa-ar-ti \\ ki^ 

41. (§ag-zu) ''"Zi-si mu-se-[ib-bi-i sa-bu-ti] 

42. mu-uk-kis su-har-ra-tu 

43. ('^"§ag-zu) ''"SuH-HAB sal-sis na-sih [ai-bi]'' 

44. mu-sap-pi-ih kip-di-su-nu . 

45. mu-[bal-]li [nap-]har rag-gi ' 

46 lis 

47. [(''"Sag-zu) "'"Suh-g]u-hab \e-su-ic nap-har rag-g{\ 

63. ''"Gil 

64. rab-bu ....... 

65. '''"A-gil-[ma na-si-ih sa-ki-i a-sir sal-tum iar 

a-gi-f\ " 

66. ba-nu-u \irsi-ti7n viuUdiru elati 7nu-kin Sami-e] '- 

' 91139, /■«-«7z-[r/]. Commentary K. 8299 in King, ii 60, Obv. 1-5 ; 
rSBA. 1910, 121. The break appears to leave room for ia u-ti-bu. 

- 91 139, m-!l 

^ K. 8299 has two words for this break [. . .]-/« and [. . .]-/a (?)-i«. 

* The last word in this line ended . . . su-u, K. 8299, Obv. 12. The 
Commentary on 1. 39 is ZI = kit-turn ; ZI — i-sa-rum ; ZU = . . . su-u ; 
ZU= . . ., made up by S. 11 (PI. 51) III 1-4 + K. 8299 Obv. 10-13 
(PI. 70). 

^ Here begins K, 9267, CT. 13, 28. The Commentary on 1. 40 is 
ZU= sar-tum ; ZI - kdnu ; ZU=^; ZI=h made up by S. 1 1 Obv. 
Ill 5-8 + K. 8299, 14 . . . 

" '^■Zi-si — nasih IcMli, K. 2107, 30; cf. Schroeder, KAV. 59, 5. 

' Restored from K. 2107, 31. 

" For kip-di cf. KAR. 80 R. 13, kip-di-m-nu upatlar-su-nu-ti, and 
ibid. Obv. 7. Cf. Book IV 68, sapih tema-su. 

' This phrase really explains a title omitted here, ''■■Suh-gH-hab, or 

Sagzu, Siihhab and Agilma 199 

37. Confidence he restored to the assembly of the 
gods, and he gladdened their hearts. 

38. The subduer of the disobedient 

39. Administrator of justice 

40. Who perversity and 

41. Sag-zu is Zisi, conqueror of oppressors.'' 

42. Who dispels misery 

43. Sagzu is thirdly Suhhab who annihilates the 

44. Confounder of their plots * 

45. Who puts an end to the totality of evil ones 


47. Sagzu is (fourthly) Suhguhab, destroyer of the 

totality of the wicked. 



64 • • • . • 

65. ''"Agilma, [uprooter of the proud, organizer of 

victory, lord of the crowti\ ; 

66. Creator \of the earth, director of the beings on hi^h, 
fixer of the heavens\. 

•^■gA-A-gu-hab, K. 2107, 32 ff. = Schroeder, KAV. 59, 7 ff. Cf. Rm. 

395 R- 5- 

>" The Obverse of each commentary PI. 51 +K. 8299; PI. 56, and 
PI. 59 originally carried four columns and commented upon about sixty- 
five lines. This was arranged to agree approximately with the lines on 
the Obverse of Tablet VII, as arranged on K. 13761 (King, i 164). 
Now on PI. 54 of vol. ii King gives the last traces on the Obv. ; he gives 
[ ] Gil as the last sign and beginning of a new section. This 
corresponds clearly to ^Gil . . ., four lines from end of Obv. on 
K. 1 3761, and K. 4406 (the Rev. of Sm. 11) PI. 54 continues the 
commentary. Dr. King erroneously placed K. 12830 in the break here 
(vol. i 100), and Ebeling copied the mistake after it had been rectified 
in PSBA. 1910, 116, over ten years ago. The Commentary on 1. 62 has 
. . . pu-u; . . . ka-nu and . . . u, PI. 54 note. 

" Restored from C. 54 I 1-7 ; PSB.\. 1910, 122. 

'2 C. 54 I 8-13; PSBA. 1910, 159. 

200 Tablet VII 

67. ''"Zu-LUM ^ mu-ad-di [kir-ba-a-ti - ] 

68. na-din is-ki u nin-da-\bi-e (?) ia Hani abc-hi\ * 

69. ''"Mu-UM-MU ba-an \ka-la '^" Mu-um-mu na-din ti-- 


70. ilu mu-lil sami-e 

71. sa ana du-un-ni 

72. ''"GiS-NUMUN-AB-BA 

73. a-bit ilani \lint-nu-ti ] 

74. "'"LUGAL-ES-DUBUR " -tim 

75. sa i-na su-me-sa 

76. ^^"PA-[gal-gu-en-na rabit e-til-luina\ nap-har be- 


77. sa ina [ilani ahe-su sur-ba-]a* e-mu-ka-su 

78. ''"Lugal-dur-mah mar-kas ilani be-el dur-ma-hi ' 

79. sa ina su-bat sarru-u-ti sur-bu-u ^^ 

80. ina ilani ma-'-dis si-ru " 

81. "'"A-Du-NUN-NA *^ ma-lik ''"E-a ba-an ilani abe-su. 

' This title occurs in the line sar-hu ^^"^Zu-lum-mar (Var. ma-ru) 
ka-ri-su ti-il-tt-sin, Craig, RT. 52, 43, which refers to a legend of 
Marduk's having created man from clay. Cf. zu-lum-via-ra, title of 
Tammuz, SBP. 332, 25. 

"The Commentary 55, 15 ff. has ZU =\ad{i\ and KIB{ut) — 
\kirbitu'f\. For ul = kirbitu see Chicago Syllabary, 282. 
' ' See VII I. 

* Commentary 55 I 23 has KU{zi),\.e. zi(J)=-kemu, mea.] ^m'ndabu? 
For nadi'n the C. has MC/; for I'sku, BA ; for tldta', AN; and for abi-su, 
AD. 'Portions', here in the sense of 'portions of sacrifices'. Cf. 
VI 140. 

° Mummu = Logos, creative word, was originally a title of Ea. For 
Ea as mummu ban kala see JRAS. 1918, 437, and for the conjectural 
restorations see C. 55 I 27-9, and cf. the Commentary 82-3-23, 151 
on PI. 54 with CT. 13, 32, R. 10. For the Babylonian theory of the 
Logos and its identification with Warduk see JR.\S. 1918, 433-49. 

Titles of Mardiik 201 

67. ''"Zulum defining [the fields ]^ 

68. Bestower of portions and [fixed offerings of the 
gods his fathers]. 

69. MuMMir, creator of [all things, Miimmu giver of 

70. God that cleanseth heaven 

71. Who for the security of 


73. Who overthrew the evil ^o^^ 

74. ''"LUGAL-E§-DUEUR 

75. Whose names in 

76. ''"Pagalguenna \great hero i)i\ the totality of 

77. Whose strength has been extolled among the gods 
his brothers. 

78. ''"LuGALDURMAH, leader of the gods, lord of the 
' far-famed band '. 

79. Who has been magnified in the abode of kingship, 

80. Among the gods he is pre-eminent. 

81. ''"Adununna, counsellor of Ea, creator of the gods 
his fathers, 

^ Restored from K. 4210, 9 in CT. 25, 43 = II R. 59^49 = Ki. 
1904-10-9, 14 1. 20. For the value of the last sign DUG + BUR see 
CT. 24, 6, 36; 25, 17, 37; 12, 24^23-4. Here begins K. 8519, 
King, i 165. 

' Restored from K. 4210, 10. 

' Restored from C. 54 II 1-7, which includes a comment on eiiUum 
and naphanan (of 1. 76). 

' C. 54 II 8-13. dur-mah, literally markasu siru, a theological term 
in which markasu, ' band ', means ' creative reason ', divine thought which 
guides the world ; this word often obtains the concrete meaning ' leader '. 
Hence dur-mahu is really equivalent to ' divine plan '. On the philoso- 
phical import oi markasu see JRAS. 1918, 433-49. 

'" C. 54 II 14-18. A small fragment, K. 13337, in King, Great, i 166 
begins here. 

" C. 55 II 19-22, which read ana Hani. 

" The title occurs in the Commentary 54228, 21, King, ii 63, where 

202 Tablet VII 

82. sa a-na tal-lak-ti ^ ru-bu-ti-su la u-mas-sa-lu ilu 


2>2,- ['^"Dumu-du-kug]2 sa ina du-kuggi u-ta-da-su 

84. \ina ki-is-si Simaii i/^-]bat-su el-lit 

85 wai(?)-la has-su "'"Lugal-du-kug-ga 

86 sa-ka-a e-mu-ka-su 

dtj -i« (?)-iiu kir-bis tam-tim 

88 a-bi-ka^ tahazi 

89. [sa ina ir-bi kib-ra-a-te] sal-mat* [kakkadi ib- 


90. [e-li sa-]a-su te-[e-mi sa fim ili u-ta-du-u]' 

91. ["'"GiJBiL" mu-[kin ] 

92. sa^ Ti-amat . . 

93 uz-[na 

94. ir-[ba ]ru-u-ku[ *] 

95. \^^''En-bi-lii''\lu 




it is explained ili-lu hanla (?) ilu hansa ib . . . An incantation begins 
with this title, KAR. 76 Obv. 26, and it is given in K. 4210, 11. See 
also K. 2107, 20, ^-A — vialik il^Enltl u '^^Ha. 

^ C. 55 II 29-35, which has a-lak-tu; also 54228, 23. 

'^ Marduk the ' Son of Du-kugga ' corresponds to the title of his father 
'^■Lugal-du-kug — i^'^^ETi., King, Magic, 12, 25. But Lugal-dii-kug, or 
'Lord of the holy chamber', is originally Enlil, RA. iO, 145, i ; 148 
n. I ; CT. 24, 5, 37. Du-KUG, 'holy chamber', is by origin a throne- 
room in the assembly-hall of the gods (Ubsukkina), and located in the 
under-world, hence Ekur at Nippur and other temples, after the pattern 
of the cosmos, possessed a du-kug, SBP. 293, 13; SBP. 248, 7 ; 289, 14 
(at Nippur), and see VAB. iv 301 for this chamber in the temple of 
Marduk at Babylon. On the other hand, dii-kug was identified with 
the nether-sea (dwelling-place of Ea), CT. 18, 28, 7; 11, 29, 31, and 
in Book I 79-82 the Babylonian version has an account of how Ea 
(and Damkina) created Marduk in the kissi simati in the apsil. Now 
du-kug, where the gods met in Esagila yearly to decree fates, is 
repeatedly called asar h'vidli. This title, therefore, refers to Book I 78- 
83. The title in 1. 83 follows Adununna, K. 4210, 12. Dhorme, Choix 
de Texies, 77 m, en oneously explained Lugal-du-kug as a title of Marduk. 

Dumu-du-kiisf: and G'lb'il 


82. The way of whose princely power no god equals. 

83. ''"DuMU-DU-KUG, whom in the holy chamber (Ea) 

84. [In the chamber of fates], his holy dwelling-place, 
85 the wise Lugal-du-kugga (Ea). 

86 whose might is supreme. 

"i"] in the inward parts of Tiamat. 

88 overthrows battle. 

89. Who in the four regions created the dark-headed 

90. And who for him (mankind) decreed the plan of 
the ' day of the gods ', 

91. ''"GiBiL, who establishes 

92. Who the ^t/ Tiamat 

93 his ears 

94. Four (?) unsearchable 

95 • 

' On K. 8299 R. 2 read a{'>)-[ba-ku']'> PI. 60, and here follows 
PI. 52 II with the Commentary on 1. 89. 

' Text from K. 12830, King, Creal. i 163. For the Commentary 
made by the join, see PSBA. 1910, 161. 

"■ C. 52 II 4-11-I-K. 8299; see PSBA. 1910, 161. The verb at the 
end may be adii, ' determine, ordain ', and to be read utaddu, u-ad-du-u. 
The ' day of god ' is a common expression for ' sacred festival '. See 
the references in Landsberger, Dcr Kultische Kalender, p. 12, where 
this reference is omitted. 

'■ On the close connexion between Marduk and Gibil, the fire-god, 
see Tallquist, Maklu, p. 22, and note that this title follows Dumu-dii- 
kug = mar-du-kiig = mar apsi, and IV R. 14, no. 2 R. 9, Gibil mar 

' Commentary, Pi. 52 II 18, has gain - \}a\ See PSBA. 19 10, 162 
on 11. 92-3. 

« Commentary 53 II 28-344-57 II 3-9. Cf. Book I 95. 

* C. 57 II 10. For this title in Book VII see the Commentary, 
King, ii 63, 14, mu-dis mati-su . . ., and na-mad su-'tc mu-sa6-lu{?} . . . 
See also King, i 181, 6. 

204 Tablet VII 


99. [''"E-]zuR Sa ina bit ik-ri-bi i-ra-mu-u hib-ta ^ 

100. i-hi hi ina e-ri-bi-Su kat-ra-a i-7nah-ha-ru 

106 sa-a-su ' 

107. '^"Ni-Bi-RU kakkabu sa ina same su-pu-u ^ 

108. lu-u sa-bit resu-arkat*-su-nu sa-a-su lu-u pal-su. 

109. ma-a sa kir-bis '" Ti-amat i-tib-bi-[ru " la a-ni-hu] 
no. sum-su lu^" "'"Ni^-bi-ru a-hi-zu " kir-bi-su. 
III. sa kakkabani" sa-ma-me " al-kat-su-nu li-kil-lu"* 

112. kima " si-e-ni'* li-ir-ta-a" ilani gim-ra-su-un " 

113. lik-me-^ Ti-amat ni-sir-ta-sa ^^ li-si-ik^^ u lik-ri 


' C. has traces of . . . rti, . . . bu, ... tu. 1 

' In the break which now follows before the first lines on 35506 Rev. 
and K. 8522 Rev. belong the fragments of the Commentary K. 4406 
R. Ill, King, Creal. ii 54-5, left edge. The numbering of the lines and 
extent of the break is approximately certain. 

5 C. 55 III 8-14 and VAB. iv 282, 8. The line refers to the journey 
of Marduk on the tenth day of Nisan at the New Year's festival to the 
bit akiti outside the city of Bab)ion. 

' C. 55 III 15-18. 

^ BM. 35506 Rev. I a; K. 8522 Rev. i ; traces on 91139 R. i. 

« C. 52 III 1-6. 

' Title of Marduk as Jupiter; see Book IV 6. 

« All the texts have KUN-SAG-GI. C. 52 III 7-12. 

' The line refers to Nibiru as a constellation at or near the intersection 
of the celestial equator and the ecliptic, and when it rose heliacally it 
indicated the time of the crossing of the sun and planets from south 
to north of the equator or from north to south. 

" 91 139, i-na kir-bi, and also C. 52 III 13-21. 

Ezttr and Nibini 205 



99. [''"E-JztJR, who takes up his abode in the house of 

1 00. God zvho ill his entering therein receives presents.^ 


107. 'God of the Crossing'/ star which in heaven is 

108. Truly he holds the front and the rear; him they 
look for ; " 

109. Saj'ing, ' He who bound the inward parts of 
Tiamat without wearying. 

1 10. Lo, his name is god Nibiru who holds her middle 

111. Of the stars of heaven may he uphold their 

1 1 2. May he shepherd the gods all of them like sheep. ^* 

113. Verily he bound Tiamat, distressed her soul and 
cut it off. 

" For ebir same see Book IV 141 note. The Commentary has sir = 
eient, which admits no doubt concerning the meaning. The scribe 
of 91 139 has z-^/-[iV], which proves that he had in mind j-ki-tam in 
IV 141, and was confused by the similarity of ibir and itibhiru. The 
scribes absurdly connect nibiru, crossing, with eberu, bind. 

" 91 139, lu-ti. 

" 35506, Ne and a-hi-iz. C. 52 III 22 has luYsu = sum-lu. 

'* 91 139, kakkabu, and C. 53, 26-30. 

'^ 91 139, 35506, mi. Also K. 9267 R. i. 

" li-ki-il-lu, 35506, but C. likin or lukin. 

" ki-ma, 91 139, 35506. " 91 139, nil and U-ir-'a-a. 

" C. 53, 31-7 seems to have ina'i libbi piifiri-lunu. 

™ The line refers to the courses of the planets and their relation to 
the equator. 

" 91 139, li-ik-mi. 

'- 91 139; 35506; Is.. <)26-j, 7ia-pihla-hi. Chm si = ita-[pis-/u\. 

^ C, 53 III 42, KIL -^^ sa-\a-ku\. On the root sdku see Streck, 
Assurb. iii 581. lisik is IP precative. 


206 Tablet VII 

114. ah-ra-tas^ nise la-ba-ris u-me^ 

115. lis-si-ma^ la uk-ta-li li-bi-il ana* sa-a-ti 

116. as-su" as-ri ■^ ib-na-a ip-ti-ka ' dan-ni-na '^ 

117. be-el * matati sum-su it-ta-bi a-bi ' '''En-lil 

118. zik-ri ^ ''"lofip-i im-bu-u na-gfab-su-un ' 

119. is-me'^-ma ''"E-a ka-bat-ta-su i-te-en-gu^" 

120. ma-a sa abe"-su u-sar-ri-hu zik-ru-u-su ^^ 

121. su-ii ki-ma ia-a-ti-ma '^"E-a lu-u sum-su 

122. ri-kis par-si-ia ka-li-su-nu li-biP--ma 

123. gim-ri te-ri^'-ti-ia su-ii lit^^-tab-bal 

124. ina zik-ri hansa^* ilani rabuti 

125. hansa ^' sume^'-su im-bu-u u-sa-ti"-ru al-kat-su 

Epilogue ^'^ 

126. li-is-sab^'-tu-ma mah^*-ru-u li-kal-Iim 

' la-as, 91 139. '^ 35506, mil. 

' h'-ts-si-c-ma, gi 1^9; 355o6. ' a-;M, 91139. 

^ See note on VI 64. 

" King reads 91 139 [h'-ry-ii, 'May they lengthen', i.e. carry on the 
tale for ever. If this reading be correct then /ibil is to be taken from 
aidlu, ' May they carry it to eternity '. lissi, Itsse from Tiasii} 

' 91139, hem, rti. ku, nu; K. 9267. as-ra; 35506, dan-ni-na. C, 
Rm. 366. King, ii 57 has as-ru = samtl, and danyiinu = irsitim. See 
also CT. 13, 32 R. 10, danjiinu = irsitum. 

6 iUEN, 91139; 35506; hu 91139. C. 57, 8-12. 

' 91139, z'«a s/X'-r/; 35506, «^-;7Z/. 

" 91139; 35506, OTt'-^; c,\\j,f), ii-la-an-gi. C. 57, 17-22 has 7iagu, 
Syn. hidil. 

" 91139, ah-bi; 91139, 355o6, zi-hr. '^ 9ii39, bi-il. 

" 91 1 39, ri-e: li-it. C. 58, which after the comments on 1. 120 has 
the text in extenso, at the beginning of 1. 123 inserts u. 

" 91 139; 35506, /i(z-i2«-la-a; C. 58, has also 50-(f///. On the misuse 
of the ending -am after cardinal numbers, see Suvierian Grammar. § 176. 
K. 9267 omits lines 119-24 and reads 'The Igigi named the titles all 

Epilogue 207 

114. In the future may the peoples when days grow old, 

1 1 5. Proclaim ° unceasingly, " Let him rule * for ever ".' 

116. Since he created the places (of heaven) and 
fashioned the firm (earth), 

117.' Lord of the Lands ', father Enlil named him. 

1 18. All of the titles which the Igigl named, 

119. Ea heard and his spirit rejoiced, 

120. Saying, ' He whose titles his fathers have made 

121. Shall be even as me, "God Ea " is his name. 

122. The totality of my decrees shall he direct, yea 
all of them. 

123. All of my laws shall he carry out'. 

1 24. By fifty titles the great gods, 

125. As his fifty names, named (him) and they made 
his way pre-eminent. 

Epilogue " 

126. May they be held in remembrance; verily an 
ancient " taught them. 

of them, his fifty names they named, &c.' The insertion of 11. 119-24 
was obviously made with reference to the incantation rituals in which 
Marduk acts as the messenger of Ea. Note the ingenious method of 
the redactors in 1. 124 where Igigi in 1. 118 is repeated under the guise 
of Hani rabuti. C. 58 has ?>/a zi-kir. 

'' ha-an-la-a, 91139; lu-mi-e-lu, 91 139, 35506. '° C. 58, te. 

" With 1. 125 the text on the Commentary, King, ii 58, ends, and hence 
King concluded that 11. 126 and following form a late addition. The 
contents of these lines support his view. Rm. 366 has here a curious 
note whose obscurity is increased by the loss of the ends of the lines. 

It reads, an-nii-H-tu ul kal-a a [ ] la 51 lume [ ] la ina 

lib-bi '^^Asar-n' [ ], ' These (names) are not complete and 

which 51 names which from (the book) ^^^Asaru [Idri'k merilti 

nashu ?), i. e. these names are extracted from a composition which was 
known under this title, and which is the first line of Book VII. If this 
restoration be correct it proves that Book VII is really an extract from 
a well-known hymn concerning the names of Marduk. 

'* 91139, a-t73; ma-ah. 

" mahrti, ' The first one ' ; whether in time ' the ancient ' or in rank, 

2o8 Tablet VII 

127. en-ku ^ mu-du-u mit^-ha-ris^ lim^-tal-ku 

128. li-sa-an-ni-ma a-bu ^ ma-ri - li--sa-hi-iz 

129. sa '""''Ve'i ^ u na-ki-di ^ li-pat-ta-a uz-na-su^-un 

130. li*-ig-gi-ma a-na ''"En-lil ilani "'"Marduk. 

131. mat-su lid-dis^-sa-a su-u lu ^ sal'-ma 

132. ki-na-at a-mat-su la e-na-at ^ ki-bit'^-su 

133. si-it pi-i-su la ut-te-pi-il * ilu ai-um-ma 

134. ik-ki-lim-mu^-ma ul u-tar-ra ki-sad^-su i| 

135. ilia sa-ba-si-su uz-za-su ul i-mah-har-su ilu ma- 

am "-man 

136. ru-u-ku lib'"-ba-su su-'i-id '" kar-as-su " 

137. sa an-ni u kil-la-ti ^^ ma-har-su i-[ba-'-«i'] ^ ' 

138. tak-lim-ti mah-ru-u id-bu-bu pa-nu-us-su 

139. \Ji-ii-Yur-\_ma /zi-/a]-kan a-na i&-\ri-i{ ur-kif\ 

' the most learned ', remains uncertain. For mahru as ' first in rank ', 
cf. sag = mahru, CT. 19, 42 a 25. 

' 91139 inserts conjunction ii; 35506, u; 91139, rni-it; ri-u ; 

^ 91139 and 35506, ma-n'-i's, 'his son'; K. 9267, man, and /«- ; 
35506, a-6d. 

' 91 139, [/7- '«]-/' ; I'iid. and 35506, Ju ; 91 139, ttz-ni-su; K. 9267, 
uzjid. tiz7id is obviously the subject of lipalld, 11', piel of internal 
condition. See Book I 13 note. K. 9267 has na-kid. 

*■ King sees la 'g-\gi\ on 91 139, i.e. Arabic la.\ , 

^ 91139, li-id-\di-~\es ; ibid, and K. 9267, lu-u ; 91139, la-al. B 

■^ K. 9267, -tia-l'i. 

' 355061 l''-'^- Fi'om line 132 onward the reference is again to Marduk. 


Epilogue 209 

127. May the wise and the knowing consider them 

128. May father repeat them and teach them to 

1 29. Let the ears of shepherd and pastor open them- 

130. And may he rejoice in Enlil of the gods, even 

131. So may his land thrive and may he be pros- 

132. His word is sure and his command is unalter- 

133. The utterance of his mouth no god annuls. 

134. If he looks he turns not away his neck.'" 

135. In his anger no god withstands his rage. 

136. Unsearchable is his heart, tried is his mind. 

137. Before whom transgression and frivolity are an 

138. The instruction which an ancient thought out in 
former times, 

139. May one write down and -make accessible for 
instruction in future days. 

* 91 139 adds ma. utleptl, with negative la should be preterite. 

' 35506 adds -u; K. 9267, kisad-. 

'" The line refers to Marduk's sign of favour in answer to prayer. 

" K. 9267, 7?ian-. " 91 139' ^'-'*- 

" 91 139; 35506; K. 9267, ra-pa-as. hi id is probably III" Prm 
of IIV ' repeat, recur ', in Hebrew hipKil, ' impress upon, assure '. Here 
II' uwidu-si, ' he bequeathed to her, certified to her ', VS. viii 3, 7 ; P 
Inf. itudu, 'prayer, intercession '. Ebeling, KAR. 105 R 6. 

'* 35506, -Ja-ra-fli-j-a; 91 139, /(•«-[ ] ; K. 9267, /-a-raH ]. 

'* 91 139, luvi. 

^^ liid., da-[ ]; K. 9267, (5a-V[ ]. The restoration was made 
by Jensen. 

l«B7 O 


Tablet VII 

140. ...... a/ ''"Marduk lu-ii ilani 

141 -mat-tu-u su-um 

142 il-ku-u ma 


' King believes that this is the last line on the tablet. At any rate 
the line numbered 80 above cannot be much in error, and it is the last 
on the Obverse on K. 8519, but naturally the contents of the Reverse 
may not have occupied all the space, and a long colophon may have 
followed On K. 13761 the last line on the Obverse is 66 above, which 

Epilogue 2 1 1 

140 of Marduk verily the gods 

141. ........ 


proves that it could have contained not more than 130 lines; but it may 
belong to K. 9267, which omits six lines. Tablet I, the longest in the 
epic, has 161 lines. Dr. King's estimate of 143 lines for Tab. VII must 
be nearly accurate. 

O 2 

P J=^ ?^ >^ ^^ 

















»^i>>f Wf »: te: ^^^: 

^ ^^ »: tiii^ )^^^ 

K. 9138 




In vol. viii of Ebeling's KeilschrifUexte aus Assur, which reached 
me after this book was in print, a number of tablets referred to as 
unpublished on p. 62, are given. 

VAT. 9873 = KAR. viii 314. 

VAT. 10152 is restored by 12951 + 10392 under KAR. viii 313. 

VAT. 10346 = KAR. viii 317. 

VAT. 10659 = KAR. viii 316. 

VAT. 10898 = KAR. viii 318. 

VAT. 10997 — KAR. viii 315. 

KAR. 162 II 4 = Tablet I 55 has not an-nu-u, but ^^'^'■Mu-um-mu, 
which is an error of diitography from line 53. 
Line 58. KAR. 313 has ku-la rightly. 
Line 59. su-tiir is correct. 
Line 64. KAR. 313, ir-ti-hi-lu. 
Line 69. KAR. 313, ik-mi-su-ma. 
Line 70. KAR. 313, ^^'^Mu-um-ma e-ln-sir. 
Tablet I 92 at end, read, after KAR. 314, 10, mim-mu-su, 'he 

surpassed them in every way '. 
Line 94. KAR. 314, a-ma-ri-es. 
Tablet I 53. KAR. 315, 4, ^'■''Mii-um-vta. 
KAR. 315 omits lines 61-2. 
Line 34. KAR. 317, ild?ni(}iii). 
Line 39. KAR. 317, lu-sa-ap-pi-ih. 
Line 41. KAR. 317, in for ina. 

Lines 108-17 are partially preserved on KAR. 317, Reverse. 
Line 109. KAR. 317 Rev. 3, read da-ri-il and correct p. 82 

n. 9. 
Line no. KAR. 317, U-mut-ta. 
Line 1 13. KAR. 317, ka-lis tul-bi. 
KAR. 317 Rev. 9, 7iu-uk-ki, read su-uk-ki, and see 1. 123. 

KAR. 316 = VAT. 10659 is a new duplicate of Tab. IV 18-26, 
Line 19, us-ziz-zu-ma. 
Line 23, tp-su. 
Line 24, iu-ri (sic !). 
Line 26, i-tur. 

Addenda 215 


New light on the myth of the Death and Resurrection of Bel- 
Marduk has come to hand after this volume was in print. In the Revue 
d'Assyriologie, Vol. XIX, 175-185, M. Thureau-Dangin has published 
a remarkable hymn concerning the god Liilu, 'La Passion du Dieu Lillu'. 
Here the god Lillu, which means the 'feeble one', or the fool, imbecile, 
cripple, is described as one imprisoned in the lower-world, and his sister 
Egi-me (queen of lamentation) and his mother Gasanhar-sagga lament 
for him, precisely as in the more familiar cult of Tammuz the sister and 
mother of Tammuz laments for Tammuz.' Lillu and his sister in the 
new text conduct a dialogue in the same manner as Tammuz and his 
sister-mother Ishtar. He beseeches her to release him from his bondage ^ 
in the infernal regions and to prepare for him a funeral feast in the land 
of the living. Now it is remarkable that Lzllu, who in SBP. 222, 9 is 
undoubtedly a name for the older Bel or the earth-god Enlil of Nippur, 
is also transformed into a type of Tammuz in the cult of the earth-mother 
at Adab in this new text. See also SBP. 24 Rev. 3: '^■Aruru ama dumu 
'^■Lil-ra-ge, 'Aruru mother of the child Lil'. Here Adab and its temple 
are mentioned, as in the Louvre hymn. Aruru is only another name of 
the earth goddess Ninharsagga or Gasanharsagga, for whom the Sumerians 
had many other titles, especially Nintud or Nintur, Ninkarrak, Gula, Bau, 
Nimmag, and Dingir-mag. In the Weld-Blundell dynastic prism of 
the Ashmolean Museum (W-B. 444) the father of Gilgamish is named. 
He is there called Lil-ld. Now in this list of the kings of the first 
dynasty of Erech, the deified man Tammuz ^ is the fourth king of Erech 
and his successor was Gilgamish. If Lilla means here simply ' the 

' See Tammuz and Jsktar, 18 ff.; 42 ff. et passim. 

' silag, simlag in KA. 19, 179, 18-19; 1^°. 25-6 is probably identical with si-lam, 
dialectic for silag, sila'^ = limitu, BL., No. 8, Rev. 5. 

' The god Tammuz I take to be in reality a deified prehistoric king who was 
identified with the old dying god Abu, Damu. See Tammuz and Ishtar, pp. 26, 40, 
64. The dynastic tablets published since that book was written (1914) show that 
Sir James Frazer was partially rigiit when he saw in the cult of the dying god an 
association with living kings. I do not believe, however, with him that the cult of 
Tammuz in Sumer arose out of the practice of slaying a king as a sacrifice to the 
divine powers of nature. This cult of a dying god in Sumer was much older than 
* Dumu-zi (Tammuz) the fisherman ' who became king of Erech. For some reason 
the Sumerians chose him as the prehistoric king to typify the relation between man 
and nature, a relation which they always particularly attributed to kings from the 
earliest times as chief representative of the society. The Sumerians and Babylonians 
undoubtedly attributed peculiar divine relationship to kings. They were supposed to 
be sons of the earth goddess and consequently an identification of them with the dying 
god, son of the same goddess, was inevitable. 

2i6 Addenda 

feeble one ' it is only a title of Tammuz father and predecessor of 

A book of a mother goddess liturgy, which I published in Babylonian 
Liturgies, No. 8, mentions Giigamish as a dying god and a type of 
Tammuz. It goes on to say : u-mu-zi-da me-ir-si si-lam-la = Umuzida 
ina limit girse, that is, ' The faithful lord in the bonds of imprisonment ', 
and it speaks of the brothers of Tammuz. Umuzida is only another title 
of Tammuz and this text clearly reveals the fact that the frail young god, 
who died yearly with the summer flowers, was supposed to have been 
bound in the lower world, and that other deities suffered the same fate, 
or were associated with the same cult. Other te.xts prove that at the 
yearly lamentations for the dying god in the hot month Tammuz, this god 
was believed to suffer imprisonment in the lower world.^ 

Another Bel or local form of the earth-god was made the subject of 
the same myth ; he was Ningirsu or Egigirsu, god of the ancient city 
Lagash. The word girsu or mirsu in Sumerian means nakmt2, bondage, 
and e'-gir-su is explained in syllabars by bit nak?ni, hit ^Lil-li, bit '^■Ningirsu 
and mersfi (loan-word). See AJSL. 33, 197, 260; CT. 12, 22, B.M., 
36991 Rev. 10-13. That is, 'house of bondage', 'house of the god 
Lillu ', 'house of the god Ningiisu', or 'bondage'. The god Damu 
(older name of the dying god) is called umiin gir-su-a, ' lord of imprison- 
ment', PBS. X 306, 28 ; SEP. 160, 14 {umun me-ir-si), KL. S Rev. II 6. 
A lament to the god Tammuz has me-ir-si id Zimbir(ki)-ge = ina girse 
sa ah Puratti, ' By bondage, on the shore of the Euphrates (why hast 
thou destroyed him from me) .? ' So speaks his mother Ishtar to the 
demon of the nether-world, who had bound and taken away the young 
god.'^ This ancient earth-god at Lagash was, therefore, another form of 
the Bel who died and was bound for a time in the vast tomb of nether 
darkness. His name actually means ' Lord of bondage '. 

These nature gods whose strength failed them and who perished for 
a time seem to have been more numerous than we have supposed. They 
all seem to have been named 'the cripple or feeble one'. Tammuz was 
identified with the constellation Orion under the title "^^'' Sib-zi-an-na, 
 the faithful shepherd of heaven ', and, in fact, the Hebrew name for 
Orion is ?''pD, which probably means 'the fool'. As a constellation he 
was supposed to have been a god chained to the stars, and the entire 
myth, together with its details, seems to be reflected both in the Hebrew 
name and in the passage of Job 38, 31, 'Dost thou fasten the bands of 

' See Tammuz and hhtar, i.^ n. 2, and the Berlin Astrolabe, Weidner, H. B. 85 : 
araj} re'ti ^-Dumu-zi iJtkami), ' Month when the shepherd Tammuz is bound.' 
^ BL. 96, 3. 

Addenda 217 

the Pleiades (?), or loosen the cords of Orion ? ' See the comment on 
Job 9, 9 in Driver and Gray's Job, p. 86. The same myth was known 
to the Greeks. [A new prism, unpublished, proves that the Ke§ Liturgy, 
PBS. X 311-23, belongs really to cult of the dying god.] 

All this new information is important in forming a correct judgement 
concerning the similar myth of the imprisonment and release of Marduk- 
BSl, edited on pages 34—49. It i s clearly a form of the Tam muz_£ult. 
The persistent epithet of ' the fool ' or ' the cripple ' applied to the 
' bound god ' has obviously a bearing upon the Sacaea festival discussed 
on pages 57-59. The word may be connected with sakku, 'dumb, 
stupid ', and the bogus king, Soganes, may represent the ' fool-god '. 


The root elelu, ' to be possessed of a strong fair body', Mr. G. R. Driver 
connects with the Arabic root 'atila, magna corpore praeditus fuit, 'atilun, 
pulchro corpore praeditus. See p. 76, 66 and 80, 88. 

For hi-ut tamhari, 90, 150, Driver suggests lu-ud, and supposes a 
noun Mdu, 'leadership', from the Arabic SlI 'to be a \e.zA(ix' , sMun, 
leadership. This well-known Arabic root is to be expected in Babylonian 
but it cannot be established at present. (Doubtful.) 

The phrase sekar-ka ^^^ Anuvi, 126, 4. 6, Driver compares with a 
similar e.xample of coviparatio compendaria in Hebrew. In Ps. 45. 7 
n-lihvi 1ND3 ' thy throne is god ', which is exactly parallel to ' thy 
command is Anu ' in this epic. This proves that the Hebrew text 
is correct and that no emendation is required. Mr. Driver refers to 
the intuitive discussion of this phrase by his father, Professor S. R. 
Driver, in Hebrew Tenses, § 194 (Observation). 

mu-al-li-da-at, or var. mummallidat (IP fern, part of ualadu), 66, 4, 
'the woman who bears', 'the bearer', is the original of the Greek name of 
Ishtar, MvAirra, Mylitta, as Zimmern has already discovered, Keilschriflen 
und das Alte Testament'-^, 423 n. 7. Mr. Driver with Jensen compares 
the Greek goddess WCkdBvia. (Ilithyia), who aided women in childbirth. 
[The Arabian name for the same goddess 'AXtXar, Herodotus I 132 ; 

III 8, is undoubtedly taken from the epithet of the Babylonian goddess 
of childbirth, alidat, 'she that bears', by textual corruption. Cf. the 
title of Gula (= Nintud), the goddess of childbirth, ummu a-li-da-at 
salmat kakkadi, ' Mother who gives birth to the dark-headed people ', 

IV R. 54 b 27. The casus rectus is alittu, a common word for 'child- 
bearing woman '.] 

Mr. Driver makes a comment upon the verb uapH, which is surely 

21 8 Addenda 

correct and solves the difficulties hitherto connected with this verb. The 
verb has two different senses in Babylonian, (i) to come into being, 
become visible, and (2) to be beautiful, glorious, to excel. Root (1) 
Driver connects with Arabic ua/a'un, full-grown, adult, and ia/aa, 
he grew up, iafdun, adult, and Hebrew JJQ'', in hipKil, to shine forth, or 
cause to shine forth. Root (2) he connects with Arabic Jj, to be com- 
plete, in aph'el (IV), ' he overtopped ', cviinuit. The connexion of this 
South Semitic root (Arabic, Ethiopic, Sabean), which is also Syriac, with 
Hebrew HB' , to be beautiful, is denied by Barth. See Gesenius-Buhl, 
Handworlerbuch, sub voce. 

For root (i), ua/a'a, see 66, 7, la su-pu-u, 'they had not been brought 
into being', and for root (2), ua/aia, IIP u{us)tappii, they glorified, 70, 22. 

For the P form of root (i), see Boissier, Choix II 59, 15 : ektl luatu 
i-ua-pi-i, ' that field will attain unto full growth ', field being used by 
metonymy for its produce. For P of root (2), cf. i-na t-ir-ti-su nu-pi-e-ma, 
against him we have triumphed (?), Vale Oriental Series II 93, 18. See 
also for IIP, Imp. suppi, make thyself beautiful, JRAS. 1921, 186, 19; 
IIP ui-ta-pa-a, he is brilliant, Thureau-Dangin, Riluels, 67, 17. In 
the sense of glorify IIP, lisdpil zikri-ka, RA. 8, 43, 9. 


Adununna (god), 201. 
Agakug (god), 195. 
Agilma (god), 199. 
Agumkakrime, his door panels, 

Akitu, house of New Year's festival, 

25; 27; 28; 32; Marduk's 

journey to, 204 n. 3. 
A-MAL (god), 186 n. 10 ; identified 

with Marduk, 130 n. 5. 
Analysis of the Epic, 12-16. 
Anduruna, cosmological concept, 

71; 85. 
Anu (god) : in ritual of festivals, 
23 ; 28 ; Way of Anu is the 
central band of stars or ecliptic, 
155; other references, 69; 83; 
loi; 117; 123; 133; 139; 

149; 171 ; 191- 

Ansar (god), 69; 95; 99; loi ; 

103; 105; 109; hi; 119; 

125; 145; 187. 
Anunnaki (gods), 91; 99; 103; 

115; 123; 167; 171; 173; 

175; 176 n. 2; 183; 185; 

A-nu-uk-ki, 91 n. 27; 102, 88. 
Apsfl (god, and nether sea), 67 ; 

71; 73; 75; 77; 79; 83; 95; 

loi ; 147; 149. 
Asakku, one of the bound gods, 

30; 52; the seven asakku, 142 

n. 9. 
Asar-lu-dug (god), 185; 187. 
Asaru (god), 189. 
Asaru-alim (god), 189. 
Asaru-alim-nunna (god), 191. 
A§ur, god of Assyria, substituted for 

Marduk, 32; 41 n. 8; 47; 79. 

Babylon, 173; 175. 
Bara§agkusu (god), 183. 

Bgl (god), 131, 33. 

Belitanas, 37. 

Beltis, of Babylon, 39 ; 43 ; of 

Erech, 41. 
Bound gods, 142 n. 9; 144, 127; 

194, 27. 
Bull, white bull of Taurus, 26 n. i. 
Burning of bound gods, 30, and 

see Kingu. 

Canal star, 23; 181, 90. 
Cyclone, name of a weapon, 1 7 ; 
132 n. 12; 183, 103. 

Decans of the twelve signs of the 
zodiac, 152-4; not a planetary 
system, 153. 

Diggia, name of Nergal, 145. 

Dumudukug (god), 203. 

Ea (god): Lahmu for Ea, 78 n. 4 ; 
79 n. II ; Way of Ea, southern 
band of stars, 157, 8 ; creator of 
man, 169, 171; in ritual, 31; 
149; other references, 75; 77; 
105; 165; 167; 169; 191; 

Eastern horizon, 158 n. 2; 161 
n. 7. See elati. 

Enlil (god), in old Sumerian myth 
of Creation, 28; 29; 30; 31; 
94 n. 4 ; precursor of Ea in the 
myth, 20; 23; in the ritual, 
23 ; Way of Enlil, northern band 
of stars, 157, 8; stands for 
Marduk-Bel, 177; other refer- 
ences, 191. 

Erech, two festivals of New Year, 

Esabad, temple of Gula in myth of 
Bel, 47, 63. 


Index A 

Esagila, temple of Bel-Marduk, 
173; 175; 181 ; 36, 12. 

Esarra, 149; originally a poetical 
term for earth, also for heaven, 
148 n. 2. 

Etir-Bel, 109. 

E-umusa, chapel of Marduk, 24. 

Ezur (god), 205. 

Five-day week, 160 n. 4. 
Four winds, 132, 43. 46. 

Gaga (god), messenger of the gods, 

109, 2 ; 109 n. 10 ; in ; 117. 
GAN-UR, constellation. Crux, 130 

n. 5. 
Garment, miracle of, 129. 
Gibil (god), fire-god identified with 

Marduk, 92, 160 and n. 5; 98, 

47; 122, 109; 203. 
Gisnumunabba (god), 201. 

Houses of the moon, 151; of the 
planets, same as their stations, 
149 n. I. 

Hubur, mother Hubur, 85, 132; 

~97, 19; III, 15; 113, 23; H9- 

Hypsoma in astrology, 149 n. 8. 

Igigi, gods of the upper-world, 

125, 126. 
Imhulla, 133; 141; 185; their 

number, 176 n. 3; 169, 21; 


KAK-BAN (star), 176, 67. 
KAK-SI-DI (star), 177 n. 10. 
King at the festival, 25-6 ; 29. 
Kingu (god), husband of Tiamat, 

52; burning of, 21 n. i; 22; 

30; see 90; 99; loi ; 115; 

121; 123; 137; 139; 145; 

Kisar, 69, 12. 
Kugsud (god), 190 n. 6. 

Lahamu (goddess), 69; 79; 87; 

III ; 119; 121 ; 125 ; 187. 
Lahmu (god), 69; 79; 81; m; 

119; Lahha, 125, 125; 187. 

See Ea. 
LilO, man, 167, 5. 
Lugal-dimmer-anki (god), 169. 
Lugal-dukugga (god), 203; 202 

n. 2. 
Lugal-durmah (god), 201. 
Lugal-esdubur (god), 201. 
Lumasi (stars), 151 n. i. 

IMalefactor, slain with Bel, 43 ; 45 ; 


Maliki (city), 186 n. 10. 

Mar-biti (god), 186 n. 10. 

Marduk (god), astral titles of, 24 ; 
his curse, 21 ; as solar deity, 32 ; 
as Tammuz, 33 ; 50 ; his death 
and resurrection, 194 n. 22 ; 34- 
56 ; birth of, 79-83 ; title muzdiz 
iske/i, 186 n. 10; ransoms man- 
kind, 195 ; as fire-god, 203 n. 6 ; 
171 n. 8; see Gibil; other refer- 
ences, 105; 117; 123; 127; 
129; 165; 167; 181; 183; 
209; 211; as Enlil and Ea, 
173, 48; derivation of name, 
182 n. 8. 

Moon, motions of, 160-4; oppo- 
sition of, 162 n. 2. 

Mukug (god), 197. 

Mummu, creative form, 67, 4 ; as 
deity, 72,30, and variant sukkallu, 
messenger, 73 n. 2 ; see 72 n. i ; 
messenger of ApsO, 75, 47. 53; 
76, 66. 70. 72; 83, 117; 101, 
55 ; title of Marduk, 200, 69. 

Nabu-ahe-iddin, 109. 
Nabu-balatsu-ikbi, 93. 
Nabu-bel-su, 149. 
Nabu-musetik-Qmi, 93. 
Na'id-Marduk, 93 ; 149. 
Namru (god), 187. 
Namtilaku (god), 187. 
Nannar, god of new-moon, 158, 

12 ; as Marduk, 171, 36. 
Naridimmer-anki (god), 185. 
Nebo (god), 35; 39; i" Nisan 

ritual, 22; 24; 25; represents 

winter darkness, 25. 

Index A 


New Year's festival, at Babylon, 
20-8; at Erech, 28; rituals of, 

Nibiru (god), name of Jupiter at 
meridian, 156 ; constellations at 
equinoxes, 155," intersection of 
celestial equator and ecliptic, 
156 ; 205 ; 204 n. 9. 

Ninurta (god), son of Enlil and 
original protagonist of the Epic, 
18-19; 30; 47. 

Nisan festival based on Epic of 
Creation, 20 ff. 

Nudimmud (god), 71; loi ; 117; 

123; 145; 147; 171- 
Nusku (god), keeper of Bel's tomb, 


Pagalguenna (god), 201. 

Raiment taken from Bel, 41. 
Ransom of mankind, 194 n. 22. 
Recitation of Epic at New Year's 

festival, 23. 
Red Sea, origin of name, 146 n. 3. 

.Sagzu (god), 197. 
Sakaia, Persian festival, 57. 
Sakut (god), in Nisan festival, 22. 
Senecherib, bronze gates of, 11. 
Seven winds, 132, 46. 47. 
Shamash (god), 35; 41. 
Sin (god), 35; 41. 
Soganes, 57. 
Solar myth, 20. 
Suhguhab (god), 199. 
Suhhab (god), 199. 
Sumerian origin of the Epic, 11; 
16 ff. 

Stations, in astrology, 149 n. 8 ; 
means hypsoma, ibid. ; stations 
of moon, ibid. 

Tammuz (god), 34 n. 3 ; 215. 
Taurus, rising of the constellation, 

fixed the New Year when Epic 

was written, 26 n. i. 
Tiamat, dragoness of chaos, 67 ; 

71; 73; 83; 85; 95; 99; loi ; 

103; 107; 113; 117; 123; 

25; 131 

'33; '37; 141; 

147 ; 169; 203; 205. 
Tomb of Bel, 35 n. 5 ; 47 n. 5. 
Tutu (god), 191; 190 n. 6; 192, 

15; 193 n. 16. 

Ubsukkinna, assembly hall, 27; 

109; 117; 123; 125; 187. 
Urbadda (god), 190 n. 6. 

Veiling of holy objects, Anu, Enlil, 
Nebo, 23, 25 ; 59 n. 2. 

Western horizon, 158 n. 2, 

Zikug(god), 193. 

Zisi (god), 199. 

Zi-ukkinna (god), 193. 

ZQ, mythical monster in original 
Sumerian Epic, precursor of 
Tiamat, 19 n. i ; figured on 
Assyrian monuments in combat 
with Asur, 19 n. i ; in astrology, 
Pegasus, ibid. \ other references, 

30; 52- 
Zulummar, Zulum (god), 200 n. i. 


a'drti, to proceed, u! ia-ar, io2, 

go; m-ar-ka, io6, iii; Prt. V- 

ir, ii6, 55; 122, 113; Imp. 

'/-/r, 1 10, II. 
abalu, with saplu, 80, 96 ; with pii, 

196, 33 ; with libhu, 102, 93 ; 

116, 56; 122, 114; 158, 78; 

164, I. 
abaru, be powerful. P Prm. ilbur, 

82, 103. 
abatu, to destroy, abit Hani, 200, 

73; abtu, destroyed, 186, 130. 
abrali, mankind, 194, 25. 
abubu, cyclone, name of a weapon, 

i32> 49; 136, 75; 182, 103. 
adi, Prep., except, 94, 14; 95 n. 11 ; 

no, 18; III n. 21; 118, 76. 

Until, 124, 127. 
adH, age, cycle, 69 n. 4. 
d:^/?, crown. Phase of the moon, 

158, 14; agd masla, 160, 17. 
akti, side, ah, Prep., for the sake 

of, 94. 3- 
akrabu-amelu, Scorpion-man, Sagi- 

tarius, 88, 141; 96, 28; 112, 

32 ; 120, 90. 
dlu, to bind. P, e-ta-a-lu, 38, 21. 
alkatu =■ arkaiu, 1 4 1 n. 16. 
allu, pickaxe, 172, 46. 
amaru, to behold, amaris paska, 

80, 94. 
ammalu, threshold, 66, 2. 
a«a, more than, 70, 19; 138 n. 3. 

Comparative preposition. In 

sense of as, 132 n. 8. 
anantu, hostility ; with samddu, 

94. 4- 
annu, punishment, 168, 25. 
anta'ii, fang, 86 n. 2 ; 112, 25. 
appuna, appundta, altogether, 89, 

145; 96, 32; 114.36; 120,94. 

arahu, to consume, 134 n. 7. 
aniku, be long. IP Prt., ume uriku, 

94, 7 ; urriku ume, 68, 13 ; Vars. 

u-ur-ri-ku, u-ri-ki. 
arkanus, astronomical term, 161 

n. 8. 
asdru, to muster, dh'r Hani, 184, 

121 ; cf. 198, 65. 
asris, Prep., 94, 8; no, 4. 
a/ta'u, fang, 96, 21; 118, 83; 86, 

atu, a garment, 42, 42. 
atdlu, ctelu, be manly. P, itatilla, 
' 70, 28 ; IP, uttulat, 80, 88 ; 
utlatu, manly parts, 76, 66. 
atnatu, dwelling, 66 n. 3 ; atmatu, 

78. 79- 
azaru, to curse. Prt. izirrannati, 
94, 11; no, 15; 118, 73; 
idziri, 138, 80 ; Prm. azruninuna, 
84, 128; 94.15; 112, 19; 118, 

ba'u. III", usbamma, 74, 54. 
baki2, to weep. IV ', tabbaki, 82, 


balta, to flee. IV', ibbaM, 128, 

bdrii, to explore. Prt. i-bi-ir lame, 

146, 141. 
basmu. Viper, Hydra, 1 20, 89 ; 86, 

140; 96, 27; 112,31. See also 

p. 10 and 17 n. i. 
bel hitti, sinner, malefactor, 36, 17 ; 

38, 20. 25; 42, 45. 46. 
birru, window, 48, 68. 
bubbulu, period of moon's darkness, 

162, 21. 

dabdbu, plan, think, speak, idabub, 
40, 36 ; dabibum, 40, 34. 

Index B 


Jdmu, blood, 96, 22; 112, 26; 

13°. 32; 146. 131 ; 164, 3; 

168, 25. 26; ddme-lu sarpu, 36, 
15; (/got?/ ^(7 surri, 42, 43. 

dandnti, IP, i/o^Jw, 76, 72. 

£/a«;«>i«, earth, 206, 116. 

dardku, to lay hold of, 172. 46. 

dindnu, judgement, 38, 18. 

dumukku, gratitude, 172, 37. 

durmahu, 200, 78. 

'eddu, 'euddu, to repeat. Ill" Prm. 

iiiid, 208, 136. 
eberu, to bind. P, itibhiru, 204, 

109; ebir same, 146, 141. 
^(//ra, to bind. P, itedir, he em- 
braced, 74, 53. 
f^K, to loiter, 156, 7. 
<'^«?, to murmur, babble, 126, 137 

and n. i. 
ekesu, to dispel, mukkisu, 198, 42. 
elali, elat same, western horizon, 

158, II. 
ele.iu, to exult, 107, 121. 
elu, skull, 76, 70. 
emd, speak. P, Imp. alme, 100, 

emedu, stand upon, attain, meet. 

IV^, innindu, 124, 132 ; 138, 93 ; 

70, 21. 
eninnu, erihitta, innanu, innanna, 

now. See 91 n. 32; 98, 45; 

114, 49; 122, 107. 
enulu, Anuship, for aniitu, 1 14, 49 ; 

178, 84. 
epelu, with pii. Prt. emphatic, epsu 

pi-lu, n6, 57; 122, 115; 164. 

2; 166, 14; 178, 81 ; 117, 57; 

122, 115; pd-lu ipusamma, 108, 

I. Prm. Subjunctive, ep-su pi-ia, 

116, 62; 108, 127; 124, 120. 

Imp. epsa pi-ku>!ti, g2, 160; 122, 

109 (f/)-i«); 98,47; 116,51; 

iptts pi-ka, 104, 1 01 ; epla p'l-ka, 

128, 23. 
eseni, to bind. P, ilasir, 76, 70. 
essimtu, bone, 164, 3 and n. 5. 
eigalla, 148, 144-5. 
esA, be dark, confused. alkata 

esita, var. es'ita, 74, 49 ; esi 

tna!ak-su, 136, 67; nitil-sun ih', 
^ 136, 70- 
«/?, to rebel, do evil. eM Tiamat, 

70, 22. See n. 12, ibid, 
ehelu, ten, in word for eleven, 89 

n. 10; 96,32; 114, 36; 120,94. 
e/eku, to tear. IP, utadik, 76, 68. 
eijalu, emelu, to suckle, 40 n. 4. 

See nhnelu. 

galddu, to run in frenzy, 44, 57 ; 

52. 3- 
giparu, 67 n. 9; 66, 6; 78, 77. 
girtablilu. Scorpion-man, 88, 141 ; 

1 12, 32 ; 120, 90. 
giigallu, location, 176, 68. 
gistil, champion, 184, 126. 
GUD-ALIM, Ophiuchus, 89, 142, 


hdiru, husband, 90, 154; 98, 41; 
114, 45; 122, 103 ; 136, 66. 
For hauiru cf. hamru. }}diriltu, 


habdsu, to be satiated, 124 n. 13. 

hddu, to rejoice. Imp. hidi, Mdu, 
106, 114. 

Mkti, to mingle, ihtku, 66, 5. 

haldbu, to milk (?), 40, 33. 

halasu, scourge, 104, 95; halat 
lukmale, 104, 94. 

hamdni, II', hummura endlUni, 
dazed are our eyes, 84, 120. 

hamiu, fieriness, 82, 104. 

harasu, lie in childbirth, 179 n. 12. 

haristu, midwife, woman in child- 
birth, 79 n. 12 ; harsatu, harsitu, 
78, 84. ' . " 

harmu, husband, 82, 112. 116; 72, 

harmamu, to ban. Ill", lisharmimu, 
86, 138; 112,29; IV^, sarbabis 
Iihharmim, 86 n. 8 ; 96, 25 ; 
120, 87. 

hasiisti, to understand, hasdsi'^ la 
natd, 80, 94. 

hasisu, ear, 80, 97. 

h'lratu, wife, 78, 78. 

hursanii, mountain, lower-world, 
38, 23. 29. 


Index B 

J, exclamation with Prl. 172, 38. 

40; 100, 54. 
iaiilu, mari iautii, 80, loi. 
ibru, fortified, 172, 45. 
?^r«/, plotting, 186, 132. 
im-itnin. Seven-winds, 132, 46; 

im-iminbi, 132 n. 10. 
immu, heat of day, 84, 128. 
im-nudia. Unrivalled-wind, 132, 46. 
imsuhhii, iJevastating-wind, 132,46. 
imtu, poison, lainmi imta bulli, 

134. 62. 
inimmu, oath, 168, 16. 
irsatu, need, desire, 126, 11. 
isu arik, long bow, 176, 67. 
nratii, survey, map, 188 n. 8. 
is, us, adverbial ending, 142 n. i. 

See also s determinative. 
2M, help, 182, 114. 
isid same, eastern horizon, 160, 19. 
ishi, portion, 186 n. 10; 200, 68. 
z'tii, boundary, law. itukka la ittik, 

126, 10. 
itti, from, 196, 36. 
iasaru, isdru, move straightly. 

uWiir harran-la, 102, 80. 

kadatnmu. coffin (.'), 40, 32 ; 45 n. 5. 
kanidsu, to tarry, kammusa/uni, 

36, 16. 
karru, sackcloth, 90, 151 ; 98, 38; 

1 14, 42 ; 122, 100. 
karubu, intercessor, 190, 5. 
kasasu, to assemble, tksahinimma, 

124, 129. 
katamu, cover. With saptu, 102, 

89; 140, 98; IIP, la sukiumal, 

104, 106. 108. 
ktsiru, to restore, 186, 130. 
kulilu, Fish-man, Aquarius, 88, 

142; 96,29; 112,33; 120,91; 

89 n. 6. See p. 10. 
kummii, chamber, 78, 75. 
kupu, monstrosity, 147 n. 4. 
kusarikku. Fish-ram, Capricorn, 88, 

142; 96, 29; 112, 33; kitdar- 

rikku, 120, 91; 89 n. 7. See 

p. 10. Cf kusarihhu, Bg. Keui, 

I 52. 

kuzippu, raiment, 40, 30. 

kaburtu, grave, 34, 11. 

Xawa/««, to moan, ikammam, 102, 

karabu, fighting, 38, 23 ; 48, 69. 

karnu, horn. Said of a stage- 
tower, 174, 49. 

kamru, with tahazu, 94, 2; 168, 
18. 24. 

kipdu, plot, 198, 44. 

kisru, kisru, troops, 140, 106. 

kiidmi, before, kudmi-sunu, no, 
1 1 ; kudmis, 72, 33. 

Mill, tranquillity, 72, 40; 74, 58. 

k'u, be able, td i-li-'-a mahdr-sa, 
102, 82; 116, 53; 122, III ; 
cf. 100, 56; 116, 53; tisbtira 
teli'i, no, 5; Wat, 74, 49. 

ladiu, to consume, 140 n. 5. To 
blaze, burn, 182, 1 16. 

labu, to wail, 48, 67. 

lanidnu, IP, to do evil, ulammin, 

94. 3- 
libi, man, 88, 142 ; 164, 4 ; 166, .5. 

See kulili. 
Hsmii, running, 44, 57. 
lubahi, garment, 128, 19. 23. 24. 

25. 26. 
lullu, with lapiu, 136, 72. 

via!u, bowels, labku md-ni, 84, 

inahdrii, WV- , suiamhir , sutamhurat, 
160,18; 162, 22 and n. 2. Astro- 
nomical term for 'opposition'. 

mahdsu, to wound, mahhusunisunu, 
36, 15; iissatammahha^, 36, 17; 
cf. 38, 20; IVi, 82^116. 

manzazu, station, 148, i; 154, 6; 
156, 8; 176, 57; 184, 123. 

maram, to be obno.xious. With 
eli, 70, 27; 72, 37. 

markasu, 200, 78. 

masuru, watchman, 38, 19. 

maldru, for masdlu, 96, 24. 

masdlu, IP, umaisil, 68, 15. 

masdu, oyster, 146, 137. 

matnu, bow-cord, 130, 36. 

meku, plan, 102, 81 ; 74, 60; open 
jaws, maw, 136, 66, 

Index B 


7nesu, sanctuary, 188, 144. 

mesiru, bit mesiri, 36, 14. 

mihsu, wound, 36, 15. 

mitlu, host, 82, 106; 143 n. 12. 

tnhirlu, sign, 152, 3. 

miitu, toothed sickle, 130, 37; 
146, 130. 

mu/jhu, cranium, 146, 130; Prep. 
ina muhhi-ia, 102, 85. 

imdmulhi, arrow, 1 30 n. 5 ; identi- 
fied with Crux, ibid.; 140, loi. 

inupasirii, messenger, 38, 28 ; Rm. 

275, 7- 
7nusehi, key, 157 n. 4. 
miih'ru. lustful, 80, 88. 
mtismahu, 96, 20; 112, 24; 118, 

82; 84, 125. 133. 
mtisrulM, a dragon, Milky Way, 

86, 140; 96, 27; 112, 31 ; 120, 

89; 87 n. 9. 
niullis, in the presence of, 100, 76 ; 

104, 100; 124, 131. 

7iabu, to proclaim, nimbu-hm, 166, 

15; nimbd, 180, 98; 184, 117; 

nimbe, 180, 99; IV', innabii, 

186, 133. 
nagu, to shout, sing. IP, Imp. 

nugd, 174, 53- 
tiahlapiu, mail, kaunakcs, 134, 57. 
namzaku, lock, 157 n. 4. 
tiapdsu, be wide, glad. libbus 

lippus, 100, 76; of. 104, 99. 
nap'saiu, PI. of napihu, 130, 31 ; 

142 n. 2; napsatai, 140, 103. 

Reflexive, napsatus, 142, 109. 
narkablu, 132, 50; 48, 66; narkabat 

iime, 106, 118; cf. 132, 50. 
nasdku, to let fall, 141 n. 11. 
nasirtu, soul, life, 204, 113. 
nahi, to tremble. IP, unali kakkad- 

su, 102, 87. 
nasdku, to bite. With 'iaptu, 100, 

Tiasaku, to kiss. With laptu, 104, 

tialu, to split, 146, 130. 
nimedu, sacred abode, 172, 40. 
nimelu, suckling, 40, 33. 
nipru, offspring, 94, 2. 

nismaiu, desire, 145 n. 11. 
nitu, restraint, 142, no. 
nuballu, repose, 172, 39. 

padil, to ransom, 194 n. 22. 

palii, hatchet, 130, 29; 130 n. i. 

paldsu, to bore, 48, 69. 

paramahhu, 174, 51. 

pasahis, 168, 20. 

pasdru, to announce tidings, 46, 

60; 52, 6. 
penu or i/sncn(J), 100 n. i. 
piiradu, fear, 124, 135. 

rdbti, to tremble. IIP, liharibu, 

184, 124. 
rabdbti, to quench, lirabbib, 1 1 6, 

52 and n. 5. See sarbdbu. 
rabbaiu, majesty, 78, 78. 
ralbu, fiery, 134, 55. 
reM, to engender. IIP, ultarhi, 

'78, 80. 
reM, to bewitch, 76, 64; ri-hi, 

'76. 65. 
m?c, to annihilate, 128, 16. 
resH, helper, 136, 69; 140, 107; 

risulsu, 106, 119. 

sabu, to run swiftly, 48, 66. 

sddu, to slay, isddu, 76, 73 ; 144. 

sagti, shrine, 128, 12; igo, 10. 
sakiuku, dumb, sakkukufu, 48, 67. 
sdku, to confine, 204, 113. 
santi = naszl, to be far away, 124, 

'35- . 
si/iu, disorderer. sihdti eph'l-sii, 

'136, 68. 
sikka/u, lock-pin, 157 n. 4. 
sikurru, lock-pin, 157 n. 4. 
siii'lu, sili'dli, sorrows, 44, 53. 
sipii, a garment, 42, 42. 
suhurmalu, goat-fish, 10. 
sukaku, sukakdti, streets, 34, 9. 
suraru, imploration, 40, 35. 
saldpu, to spoil, damage. IP Prm. 

suUupu, 148, colophon. sapil, 

be complete, IIP, to perfect. 

u tesbi-lumma, 80, 91. 
sardru, to flow, usanarum, 44, 


Index B 

49. To shine, ^arir nisi eni-su, 

78, 87. 
seru, be lofty. II', Prt. usir, he 

magnified, 158, 14. 
siblu, sibil temi rasu, to come to 

a decision, 124, 127. 
silu, side, sili kilalldn, 156, 9. 
simru, treasure, 192, 21. 
siris, Prep, unto, 72, 32. 
sirritu, breast, 78, 85. 
j', determinative, 142 notes i and 4. 
Mi5/?, oppressor, lahilii, 182, 103; 

198, 41. 
sahil, pig. alnati la sake, pigsties, 

38, 24; cL 42, 44. 
sahdhu, be limp, 100, 52. 
sahararu, to become faint, 94, 6. 
sahatu, to leap. P, hllahhitamma, 

86, 139; 96, 26; 112, 30; 120, 

sdliiu. champion, 70, 17. 
samaku = lamahu, 78, 87. 
sanit, IP, to double. Noun lunndtu, 

80, 91. 
lanzl, helping verb, 166, 7 ; 170, 31. 
saninu, a rival, 68, 14. 
sapattu, full moon, 160, 18. 
sdru, breath, 192, 20; 194, 23; 

sdru, wind ; sdre irbitli, four 

winds, 82, 105. 
sarbabu, to quench, lisrabbib, 92, 

161 ; 116, 52 ; 122, no. 
sarlerru, red paste (?), 134, 61. 
sasmu, battle, 184, 128; 138,86; 

sasmil, 138, 94. 
saidhu, be high, secondary form of 

M/iu, 80, 100. 
selu, to be sharp, 139 n. 16. 
seritu, a garment, 40, 32 ; 44, 53. 
sigaru, lock-rail, 156, 10. 
hkkalu, v'xcloxy. hkkalus, 180, 100. 
simu, fate, i88, 143. 
sina, two. With zdzu, to divide 

into two parts, 166 n. 6. 
su, demonstrative, Fem. h'-i, in 

abstract sense, 126, 8. 
hi dm, singing, 70, 24. 
lukullu, 190, 8. 
lurilam, 144, 124. 
lurlii, 174, 49.- 

lut, emphatic demonstrative of su, 
90, 150; 98, 37; 114,41; 120, 
99. Relative pronoun, 89 n. 13 ; 
96, 33; 114, 37; 120, 95. In 
accusative, 142, 115. Genitive 
particle, 166, 10. 

idlu, ddlu, to hasten, 136 n. i. 
tubkatu = tubkinu, cavern, 142 n. 7. 
lubhitlu, cavern, 76, 64. 
lamil, to swear. With i/li atama 

itti-ia, 168, 16. 
iakbUu, command, 184, 120. 
larii, to nurse. P, itlarru-su, 78, 

tarbdiu, for iabrdtn, 174, 49. 
larllu, nurse, 78, 86. 
tat'u, fang, 118, 83 n. 30. 
teFu, skill, 74, 59. 
tl2, curse, 136, 71 ; 138, 91; 76, 

62; 90, 152; 98,39; 106, 117; 

114, 43; 122, loi; 196, 33. 

ugallu, great lion, Leo, 88, 141; 

96,28; 112,32; 120,90. See 

p. 10. 
ukkinnu, assembly, 96, 18; 112, 

22 ; 118, 80. 
iimu, spirit of wrath, ilmi daprtili, 

88, 142; 96, 29;^ 112, 33; 120, 

91 ; umu, day ; «/w Hi, feast day, 

202, 90. 
uridimmu, hound. Lupus, 88, 141 ; 

96, 28; 112, 32; 120, 90. See 

p. 10. 
urU, store-house, 180, 102. 
urugallu, high-priest, 40, 36 ; Rm. 

275> 5- 
usurlu, plan, curse, 76, 61 ; sign, 

152 n. 3; 154, 5. 
usumgallu, 120, 85; 86, 136; 96, 

23; 112, 27. 
iiadtt, to be lawful, la udu-ni, 48, 

71. W, io Attermme, u-ad-du-u, 

78, 76; 130, 35; 152, 3; 158, 

13; 170. 30; 192, 17- Inf' 
uddu, 154, 6; 158, 13; 160, 16. 
li-ad-di, 180, 91 ; muaddu, 190, 
7; 200, 67. P, ittaddu, 184, 
122. IP, uluJa-hi, 202, 83. 

Index B 


uakH, to wait for. IP, la utlakka- 

su, 106, 119. 
uapii, to be conspicuous. Ill'-, 

ultappii, 70, 22 ; ustapu, 68, 10. 

See p. 218. 
tiarddu, to descend. ladara(d') ! 38, 

29; IIP, Hssiridunissu, 36, 14. 
udrti, uii'dru, maaru, to send. IP, 

Prs. u-a-ar, 1 66, 13; Prt. umdiru, 

170. 32- 

uasdrti, to set free. Prs. usaru- 

suiii, 46, 65. 
iiasdru, to be lustful, fall upon, 

80 n. 2. Also iiisdru, Prt. th'r, 

118, 70. 
luitdrti, to repeat itself, helping verb, 

107 n. 33; 116,60; 122,118. 

zarii, begetter, 66, 3; 72, 29. 
zarbabu, feast, 174, 54. 





Enuma elish 

The Babylonian epic of 
creation restored from the 
recently recovered tablets 
of Assur; ed. and tr. by